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University of California Berkeley 

The Joseph M. Bransten 
Coffee and Tea Collection 










Cream, Confectionery, Vinegar, Mustard, Pepper, Cheese, Olive Oil, Pickles, 

of tretetting tfjenu 



Kin6s C . IVTT. 


Operative Chemist, Lecturer on Practical Chemistry, Mineralogy, and on Chemistry 

applied to the Arts and Manufactures ; Member of the Royal Irish Academy ; 

Fellow of the Linnaean Society; Member of the Royal Academy of 

Sciences, and of the Royal Society of Arts of Berlin, &c. &c. 

31 outs on : 






The interest your Grace takes-on 
all occasions in promoting the application 
of Chemical Philosophy to the useful pur- 
poses of life, has emboldened me to lay 
before you the present Treatise, which ori- 
ginated in a suggestion of your Grace, 
while cultivating the study of Experimental 
Chemistry in my Laboratory., 

Be pleased, My Lord Duke, to 
accept this public testimony of profound 


respect and veneration for your Grace's 
exalted moral virtues and high intellectual 

That your Grace may retain 9 
through a long and happy life, the ardent 
attachment to the pursuits of Philosophical 
Chemistry, which has so greatly endeared 
your renowned name to the votaries of that 
important and useful branch of knowledge ^ 
is the sincere wish oj} 

Your Grace's most devoted, 
Humble Servant, 

Old Compton Street, Soho. 

January the 19th, 




Old Compton Street, Sola. 

THIS Treatise, as its title expresses, is intended 
to exhibit easy methods of detecting the fraudu- 
lent adulterations of food, and of other arti- 
cles, classed either among the necessaries or 
luxuries of the table ; and to put the unwary on 
their guard against the use of such commodities 
as are contaminated with substances deleterious 
to health. 

Every person is aware that bread, beer, wine, 


and other substances employed in domestic econo- 
my, are frequently met with in an adulterated 
state : and the late convictions of numerous in- 
dividuals for counterfeiting and adulterating tea, 
coffee, bread, beer, pepper, and other articles of 
diet, are still fresh in the memory of the public. 

To such perfection of ingenuity has the system 
of counterfeiting and adulterating various com- 
modities of life arrived in this country, that spu- 
rious articles are every where to be found in the 
market, made up so skilfully, as to elude the dis- 
crimination of the most experienced judges. 

But of all possible nefarious traffic and decep- 
tion, practised by mercenary dealers, that of adul- 
terating the articles intended for human food with 
ingredients deleterious to health, is the most cri- 
minal, and, in the mind of every honet man, must 
excite feelings of regret and disgust. Numerous 


facts are on record, of human food, contaminated 
with poisonous ingredients, having been vended 
to the public ; and the annals of medicine record 
tragical events ensuing from the use of such 

The eagar and insatiable thirst for gain, is proof 
against prohibitions and penalties ; and the pos- 
sible sacrifice of a fellow-creature's life, is a 
secondary consideration among unprincipled 

However invidious the office may appear, and 
however painful the duty may be of exposing 
the names of individuals, who have been con- 
victed of adulterating food ; yet it was necessary, 
for the verification of my statement, that cases 
should be adduced in their support : and I have 
carefully avoided citing any, except those which 
are authenticated in Parliamentary documents 
and other public records. 


To render this Treatise still more useful, I 
have also animadverted on certain material errors, 
sometimes unconsciously committed through ac- 
cident or ignorance, in private families, during 
the preparation of various articles of food, and of 
delicacies for the table. 

In stating the experimental proceedings neces- 
ary for the detection of the frauds which it has 
been my object to expose, I have confined myself 
to the task of pointing out such operations only 
as may be performed by persons unacquainted 
with chemical science; and it has been my 
purpose to express all necessary rules and instruc- 
tions in the plainest language, divested of those 
recondite terms of science, which would be out 
of place in a work intended for general peru- 

The design of the Treatise will be fully an- 
swered, if the views here given should induce a 


single reader to pursue the object for which it 
is published ; or if it should tend to impress on 
the mind of the Public the magnitude of an evil, 
which, in many cases, prevails to an extent so 
alarming, that we may exclaim, with the sons of 
the Prophet, 

" TO&m to Heat?) m t&* pot/' 

For the abolition of such nefarious practices, it 
is the interest of all classes of the community to 






THE sale of one thousand copies of the 
Treatise on the Adulterations of Food, within 
one month after its publication, has been a 
sufficient inducement to reprint the work. 

Several additions have been made to 
the edition now presented to the reader; 
among which will be noticed, the adultera- 
tion of milk of cinnamon of isinglass of 
Spanish liquorice juice, and of several other 
articles employed in housekeeping, with the 
A 5 


methods of detecting the frauds. Some 
animadversions have also been made on the 
disgusting practice of inflating butchers' 
meat and fish ; and on the frauds committed 
in the coal trade. 

I embrace this opportunity of offering my 
public expression of thanks for the flattering 
compliments which I have received from 
numerous individuals of high rank and dig- 
nified station, and from other distinguished 
persons, whose opinion and judgment I re- 
spect. To those who have chosen anony- 
mously to transmit to me their opinion 
concerning this book, together with their 
maledictions, I have little to say ; but they 
may rest assured, that their menaces will 
in no way prevent me from endeavour- 
ing to put the unwary on their guard against 
Ihe frauds of dishonest men, wherever they 


may originate ; and those assailants in am- 
bush are hereby informed, that, in every 
succeeding edition of the work, I shall con- 
tinue to hand down to posterity the infamy 
which justly attaches to the knaves and 
dishonest dealers, who have been convicted 
at the bar of Public Justice of rendering 
human food deleterious to health. 


Compton-streetj Soho, 
April 1820. 




AND MEDICINES, and method 
of detecting them 15 

Adulteration of Peruvian Bark .... 16 
Adulteration of Rhubard Powder, 

Ipecacuanha, $c 17 

Adulteration of Spirit of Hartshorn, 

and method of detecting it 19 

Adulteration of Magnesia, and me* 
thod of detecting it 20 

Adulteration of Calcined Magnesia, 
and method of detecting it 21 


Adulteration of Calomel, and method 
of detecting it , 22 

Adulteration of Syrup of Buckthorn, 
Worm-Seed, and Arrow Root Pow- 
der ib. 

Adulteration of Essential Oils, and 
methods of detecting it 2 

COLOURS, and methods of detect- 
ing it 26 

Adulteration of Ultramarine, and 
method of detecting it 27 

Adulteration of Carmine, and method 

of detecting it , . ib. 

Adulteration of Madder and Carmine 
Lake, and method of detecting it .. ib. 

Adulteration of Antwerp Blue, and 
method of detecting it ib. 



Adulteration of Chrome Yellow, and 
method of detecting it ib. 

Adulteration of White Lead, and 
method of detecting it ib. 

Adulteration of Vermillion, and me- 
thod of detecting it ib. 


Adulteration of Soap, $c ib. 



General Remarks on the Adultera- 
tion of Food 41 




Characters of Good Water 49 

Easy method of curing Hard Water 5"2 
Chemical Constitution of the Waters 
used in Domestic Econony and the 

Arts 53 

Rain Water ib. 

Snow Water.. 54 

Spring Water , , 56 

River Water 60 

Thames Water 62 

Substances usually contained in Com- 
mon Water, and Tests by which 

they are detected 66 

Deleterious Effects of keeping Water 
for Domestic Economy, in Leaden 

Reservoirs r% ; 74 

Method of detecting Lead in Water.. 86 




Crusting of Wine Bottles, and other 
nefarious Artifices committed by 
fraudulent Wine Merchants 96 

Dangerous Adulteration of Wine with 
poisonous Substances 102 

Accidental Impregnation of Wine 
with Lead. 105 

Test for detecting the deleterious 
Adulterations of Wine 108 

Method of detecting extraneous Co- 
lours in Red Wine.... Ill 

Specific Differences of various kinds 
of foreign Wines , 113 

Chemical Constitution and Component 
Parts of Wine. 115 



Method of ascertaining the Quantity 
of Spirit contained in various sorts 

of Wine , 117 

Per Cent age of Alcohol contained in 
various kinds of Wine, and other 

fermented Liquors 120 

Chemical Constitution of Home-made 

Wines 122 


Adulteration of Bread with Alum. , 127 
Adulteration of Bread with Potatoes 133 
Method of detecting the presence of 

Alum in Bread. 139 

Method of judging of the Goodness 
of Breads-Corn and Bread- Flour. . 142 


Early practice of adulterating Beer 
with Substances noxious to Health, 
tind rapid Progress of this Fraud. 148 



Druggists and Grocers prosecuted 
and convictedfor supplying illegal 
Ingredients to Brewers for adulte- 
rating Beer 158 

Remarks on Porter* 161 

Strength and Specific Differences of 
different kinds of Porter 166 

List of Publicans prosecuted and 
convicted for adulterating Beer 
with illegal Ingredients, and for 
mixing Table Beer with their 
Strong Beer 171 

Fraudulent Practice of adulterating 
Beer with substances not deleteri- 
ous to health 173 

Illegal Ingredients seized at various 
Breweries and Brewers' Druggists 9 181 

Adulteration of Strong Beer with 
Small Beer.. 185 



List of Brewers prosecuted and con- 
victed for adulterating Strong Beer 
with Table Beer 189 

Remarks with regard to the Origin of 

the Beer catted Porter , 191 

Composition of Old or EntireBeer. . 194 
Fraudulent Practice of converting 
New Beer into Old or Entire Beer 196 

Fraudulent Practice of increasing 
the intoxicating quality of Beer... 199 

Brewers prosecuted and convicted 
for receiving and using illegal In- 
gredients in their Brewings 201 

Method of detecting the Adulteration 
of Beer 207 

Method of ascertaining the Quantity 
of Spirit contained in Porter, Ale, 
or other kinds of Malt Liquors.... 209 


Per Centage of Alcohol contained in 
Porter, Ale, and other kinds of 
Malt Liquors 211 


List of Grocers prosecuted and con- 
victed for adulterating Tea 230 

Method of detecting the Adultera- 
tions of Tea-Leaves 231 


List of Grocers prosecuted by the 
Solicitor of the Excise and con- 
victed for adulterating Coffee 241 


Method of detecting the Adultera- 
tions of Brandy, Rum, and Malt 
Spirit 261 

Method of detecting the Presence of 
Lead in Spirituous Liquors 272 



Method of ascertaining the Quantity 
of Alcohol in different kinds of 
Spirituous Liquors 273 

Per Centage of Alcohol contained in 
various kinds of Spirituous Liquors 275 

of detecting it 276 

thod of detecting it 284 

White Pepper^ and method of manu- 
facturing it 290 

and method of detecting it 292 

thod of detecting them 295 


and method of detecting it.... 299 

Distilled Vinegar 300 




and method of detecting it 302 


and method of detecting it 305 

of detecting it 309 


and method of detecting it 314 

thod of detecting it 318 

ACID, and method of detecting it 321 

method of detecting it..... 324 

and method of detecting it 325 





Mushroom Catsup 338 


method of detecting it 340 

and method of detecting it 342 

and method of detecting it 344 




VESSELS, and method of detect- 
ing it 350 


VESSELS, <ind method of detect- 
ing it 357 








OF all the frauds practised by mercenary 
dealers, there is none more reprehensible, 
and at the same time more prevalent, than 
the sophistication of the various articles of 

This unprincipled and nefarious practice, 
increasing in degree as it has been found 


difficult of detection, is now applied to al- 
most every commodity which can be classed 
among either the necessaries or the luxu- 
ries of life, and is carried on to a most 
alarming extent in every part of the United 

It has been pursued by men, who, from 
the magnitude and apparent respectability 
of their concerns, would be the least ob- 
noxious to public suspicion ; and their suc- 
cessful example has called forth, from 
among the retail dealers, a multitude of 
competitors in the same iniquitous course. 

To such perfection of ingenuity has this 
system of adulterating food arrived, that 
spurious articles of various kinds are every 
where to be found, made up so skilfully as 
to baffle the discrimination of the most ex- 
perienced judges 


Among the number of substances used in 
domestic economy which are now very ge- 
nerally found sophisticated, may be dis- 
tinguished tea, coffee, bread, beer, wine, 
spirituous liquors, salad oil, pepper, vine- 
gar, mustard, cream, comfitures, catsup, and 
other articles of diet and luxury. 

Indeed, it would be difficult to mention a 
single article of food which is not to be met 
with in an adulterated state ; and there are 
some substances which are scarcely ever to 
be procured genuine. 

Some of these spurious compounds are 
comparatively harmless when used as food ; 
and as in these cases merely substances of 
inferior value are substituted for more costly 
and genuine ingredients, the sophistication, 
though it may affect our purse, does not 
injure our health. Of this kind are the ma- 
B 2 


nufacture of factitious pepper, the adulter- 
ations of mustard, vinegar, cream, &c 
Others, however, are highly deleterious ; 
and to this class belong the adulterations of 
beer, wines, spirituous liquors, pickles, sa- 
lad oil, and many others. 

There are particular chemists who make 
it a regular trade to supply drugs or nefa- 
rious preparations to the unprincipled brewer 
of porter and ale ; others perform the same 
office to the wine and spirit merchant ; and 
others again to the grocer and the oilman. 
The operators carry on their processes 
chiefly in secrecy, and under some delusive 
firm, with the ostensible denotements of a 
fair and lawful establishment. 

These illicit pursuits have assumed all 
the order and method of a regular trade ; 
thqy may severally claim to be distinguished 


as an art and mystery ; for the workmen 
employed in them are often wholly igno- 
rant of the nature of the substances which 
pass through their hands, and of the pur- 
poses to which they are ultimately applied. 
To elude the vigilance of the inquisitive, 
to defeat the scrutiny of the revenue officer, 
and to ensure the secrecy of these mys- 
teries, the processes are very ingeniously 
divided and subdivided among individual 
operators, and the manufacture is purposely 
carried on in separate establishments. The 
task of proportioning the ingredients for use 
is assigned to one individual, while the com- 
position and preparation of them may be 
said to form a distinct part of the business, 
and is entrusted to another workman. Most 
of the articles are transmitted to the con- 
sumer in a disguised state, or in such a form 


that their real nature cannot possibly be 
detected by the unwary. Thus the poison- 
ous extract of cocculus indicus, employed 
by fraudulent manufacturers of malt-liquors 
to impart an intoxicating quality to porter 
or ale, is known in the market by the name 
of black extract; and another poisonous 
substance, technically called multum, com- 
posed of extract of gentian root, liquorice 
juice, and extract of cocculus indicus, is 
used by fraudulent brewers to economise 
malt and hops. 

The quantities of cocculus indicus berries, 
as well as of black extract, imported into 
this country for adulterating malt liquors, 
^re enormous. It forms a considerable 
branch of commerce in the hands of a few 
brokers : yet, singular as it may seem, no 
inquiry appears to have been hitherto made 


by the officers of the revenue respecting its 
application. Many other substances em- 
ployed in the adulteration of bread, wine, 
beer, ale, and spirituous liquors, are in a 
similar manner intentionally disguised ; and 
of the persons by whom they are purchased, 
reat number are unacquainted with their 
k composition. 

act, said to be innocent, sold at no 
fay at a time than from half a cwt. 
rt. by brewers' druggists, under the 
name of bittern, is composed of calcined 
sulphate of iron (copperas), extract of coc- 
culus indicus berries, extract of gentian 
root, and Spanish liquorice : and the article 
called beer heading, is composed of alum 
and green vitriol. 

It would be very easy to adduce, in sup- 
port of these remarks, the testimony of nu- 


merous individuals, by whom I have been 
professionally engaged to examine certain 
mixtures, said to be perfectly innocent, 
which are used in very extensive manufac- 
tories of the above description. Indeed, 
during the long period devoted to the prac- 
tice of my profession, I have had abundant 
reason to be convinced that a vast number 
of dealers, of the highest respectability, 
have vended to their customers articles 
absolutely poisonous, which they them- 
selves considered as harmless, and which 
they would not have offered for sale, had 
they been apprised of the spurious and per- 
nicious nature of the compounds, and of the 
purposes to which they were destined. 

For instance, I have known cases in which 
brandy merchants were not aware that the 
substance which they frequently pur- 


chase under the delusie name of jtash, for 
strengthening and clarifying spirituous li- 
quors, and which is held out as consisting 
of burnt sugar and isinglass only, in the 
form of an extract, is in reality a compound 
of sugar with extract of capsicum ; and that 
to the acrid and pungent qualities of the 
capsicum is to be ascribed the heightened 
flavour of brandy and rum, when coloured 
with the above-mentioned matter. 

In other cases the ale-brewer has been 
supplied with ground coriander-seeds, pre- 
viously mixed with a portion of ground nux 
vomica, under the delusive name of Faba 
amara, to give a narcotic property to the 

It is a painful reflection, that the division 
of labour which has been so instrumental in 
bringing the manufactures of this country 
to their present flourishing state, should 


have also tended to conceal and facilitate 
the fraudulent practices in question; and 
that from a correspondent ramification of 
commerce into a multitude of distinct 
branches, particularly in the metropolis and 
the large towns of the empire, the traffic in 
adulterated commodities should find its way 
through so many circuitous channels, as to 
defy the most scrutinizing endeavour to 
trace it to its source. 

It is not less lamentable that the exten- 
sive application of chemistry to the useful 
purposes of life, should have been perverted 
into an auxiliary to this nefarious traffic. 
But, happily for the science, it may, with- 
out difficulty, be converted into a means of 
detecting the abuse ; to effect which, very 
little chemical skill is required; and the 
course to be pursued forms the object of the 
following pages. 


The baker asserts that he does not put 
alum into bread ; but he is well aware that, 
in purchasing a certain quantity of half 
spoiled flour, he must take a sack of sharp 
ivhites (a term given to flour contaminated 
with a quantity of alum), without which it 
would be impossible for him to produce 
light, white, and porous bread, from a half- 
spoiled material. 

The wholesale mealman frequently pur- 
chases this spurious commodity, (which 
forms a separate branch of business in the 
hands of certain individuals,) in order to 
enable himself to sell his decayed flour. 

Other individuals furnish the baker with 
alum mixed up with salt, under the obscure 
denomination of stuff. There are wholesale 
manufacturing chemists, whose sole busi- 
ness is to crystallise alum, in such a form 
as will adapt this salt to the purpose of be- 



iug mixed in a crystalline state with the 
crystals of common salt, to disguise the 
character of the compound. The mixture 
called stuff i is composed of one part of 
alum, in minute crystals, and three of com- 
mon salt. 

In many other trades a similar mode of 
proceeding prevails. The practice of so- 
phisticating the necessaries of life, being 
reduced to systematic regularity, is ranked 
by public opinion among other mercantile 
pursuits ; and is not only regarded with 
less disgust than formerly, but is almost 
generally esteemed as a justifiable way to 

It is really astonishing that the penal 
law is not more effectually enforced against 
practices so inimical to the public welfare* 
The man who robs a fellow subject of a few 
shillings on the high-way, is sentenced to 


death, while he who distributes a slow 
poison to a whole community, escapes un- 

It has been urged by some, that, under 
so vast a system of finance as that of Great 
Britain, it is expedient that the revenue 
should be collected in large amounts ; and 
therefore that the severity of the law should 
be relaxed in favour of all mercantile con- 
cerns in proportion to their extent : encou- 
ragement must be given to large capitalists ; 
and where an extensive brewery or distil- 
lery yields an important contribution to the 
revenue, no strict scrutiny need be adopted 
in regard to the quality of the article from 
which such contribution is raised, provided 
the excise and customs do not suffer by the 

But the principles of the constitution 


afford no sanction to this preference, and the 
true interests of the country require that it 
should be abolished ; for a tax dependant 
upon deception must be at best precarious, 
and must be, sooner or later, diminished by 
the irresistible diffusion of knowledge. 
Sound policy requires that the law should 
be impartially enforced in all cases ; and if 
its penalties were extended to abuses of 
which it does not now take cognizance, 
there is no doubt that the revenue would be 
abundantly benefitted. 

Thus devoted to disease by baker, brewer, 
grocer, wine merchant, &c. the physician is 
called to our assistance ; but here again, as I 
s'hall state presently, the pernicious system 
of fraud, as it has given the blow, steps in 
to defeat the remedy. 



And Methods of detecting them. 

THE species of fraud to which I shall 
now but briefly advert, and which has in- 
creased to so alarming an extent, that it 
loudly calls for the interference of Go- 
vernment, is the adulteration of drugs and 

Nine tenths of the most potent drugs and 
chemical preparations used in pharmacy, are 
vended in a sophisticated state by dealers 
who would be the last to be suspected. 



IT is well known, that of the article, of Pe- 
ruvian bark there is a variety of species in- 
ferior to the genuine ; that too little discri- 
mination is exercised by the collectors of 
this precious medicament ; that it is care- 
lessly assorted, and is frequently packed in 
green hides; that much of it arrives in 
Spain in a half-decayed state, mixed with 
fragments of other vegetables and various 
extraneous substances ; and in this state is 
distributed throughout Europe. 

But, as if this were not a sufficient dete- 
rioration, the public are often served with 
a spurious compound of mahogany sawdust 
and oak wood, ground into powder, mixed 
with a proportion of good quinquina, and 
sold as genuine bark powder. 


Every chemist knows that there are mills 
constantly at work in this metropolis, which 
furnish bark powder at a much cheaper rate 
than the substance can be procured for in 
its natural state. The price of the best ge- 
nuine bark, upon an average, is not lower 
than twelve shillings the pound; but im- 
mense quantities of powder bark are sup- 
plied to the apothecaries at three or four 
shillings a pound. There is no ready test 
for detecting the fraud. 


IT is also notorious that there are ma- 
nufacturers of spurious rhubarb powder, 
ipecacuanha powder*, James's powder, and 

* Of this root, several varieties are imported. The 


other simple and compound medicines of 
great potency, who carry on their diabolical 
trade on an amazingly large scale. Indeed, 
the quantity of medical preparations thus 
sophisticated exceeds belief. Cheapness, 
and not genuineness and excellence, is the 
grand desideratum with the unprincipled 
dealers in drugs and medicines. 

Those who are familiar with chemistry 
may easily convince themselves of the ex- 
istence of the fraud, by subjecting to a che- 
mical examination either spirits of hartshorn, 

white sort, which has no wrinkles, and no perceptible 
bitterness in taste, and which, though taken in a large 
dose, has scarcely any effect at all, after being pul- 
verised by fraudulent druggists, and mixed with a 
portion of emetic tartar, is sold at a low price, for the 
powder of genuine ipecacuanha root. There is no 
ready method known to detect the fraud. 


magnesia, calcined magnesia, calomel, or 
any other chemical preparation in general 


And Method of detecting it. 

SPIRIT of hartshorn is counterfeited by 
mixing liquid caustic ammonia with the dis- 
tilled spirit of hartshorn, to increase the 
pungency of its odour, and to enable it to 
bear an addition of water. 

The fraud is detected by adding spirit of 
wine to the sophisticated spirit ; for, if no 
considerable coagulation ensues, the adul- 
teration is proved. It may also be disco- 
vered by the hartshorn spirit not producing 
a brisk effervescence when mixed with mu- 
riatic or nitric acid. 



And Method of detecting it. 

MAGNESIA usually contains a portion of 
lime, originating from hard water being used 
instead of soft, in the preparation of this me- 

To ascertain the purity of magnesia, add 
to a portion of it a little sulphuric acid, di- 
luted with ten times its bulk of water. If 
the magnesia be completely soluble, and 
the solution remains transparent, it may be 
pronounced pure; but not otherwise. Or, 
dissolve a portion of the magnesia in muri- 
atic acid, and add a solution of sub-carbo- 
nate of ammonia. If any lime be present, 
it will form a precipitate ; whereas pure 
magnesia will remain in solution. 



And Method of detecting it. 

CALCINED magnesia is seldom met with 
in a pure state. It may be assayed by the 
same tests as the common magnesia. It 
ought not to effervesce at all, with dilute 
sulphuric acid ; and, if the magnesia and 
acid be put together into one scale of a ba- 
lance, no diminution of weight should ensue 
on mixing them together. Calcined mag- 
nesia, however, is very seldom so pure as 
to be totally dissolved by diluted sulphuric 
acid; for a small insoluble residue generally 
remains, consisting chiefly of silicious earth, 
derived from the alkali employed in the 
preparation of it. The solution in sulphu- 
ric acid, when largely diluted, ought not to 
afford any precipitation by the addition of 
oxalate of ammonia. 


And Method of detecting it. 

THE genuineness of calomel may be as- 
certained by boiling, for a few minutes, one 
part with ^ part of muriate of ammonia in 
ten parts of distilled water. When carbo- 
nate of potash is added to the filtered solu- 
tion, no precipitation will ensue if the calo- 
mel be pure. 


SYRXJP of buckthorn, for example, instead 
of being prepared from the juice of buck- 
thorn berries,(V h amnus catharticns,) is made 
from the fruit of the blackberry bearing 


alder, and the dogberry tree, A mixture of 
the berries of the buckthorn and blackberry 
bearing" alder, and of the dogberry tree, 
may be seen publicly exposed for sale by 
some of the venders of medicinal herbs. 
This abuse may be discovered by opening 
the berries : those of buckthorn have almost 
always four seeds; of the alder, two; and 
of the dogberry, only one. Buckthorn ber- 
ries, bruised on white paper, stain it of a 
green colour, which the other do not. 
There is no method of detecting the ge- 
nuineness of the buckthorn syrup. 

Instead of worm-seed [arlemisia san- 
tonica~\ the seeds of tansey are frequently 
offered for sale, or a mixture of both. 

Most of the arrow-root, the fecula of the 
maranta arudinacea, sold by druggists, is a 
mixture of potatoe starch and arrow-root. 



And Methods of detecting them. 

A GREAT many of the essential oils ob- 
tained from the more expensive spices, are 
frequently so much adulterated, that it is 
not easy to meet with such as are at all fit 
for use : nor are these adulterations easily 
discoverable. The grosser abuses, indeed, 
may be readily detected. Thus, if the oil 
be adulterated with alcohol, it will turn 
milky on the addition of water ; if with ex- 
pressed oils, alcohol will dissolve the vola- 
tile, and leave the other behind ; if with oil 
of turpentine, on dipping a piece of paper 
in the mixture, and drying it with a gentle 
heat, the turpentine will be betrayed by 
its smell. The more subtle artists* bow- 


ever, have contrived other methods of so- 
phistication, which elude all trials. And as 
all volatile oils agree in their general pro- 
perties of solubility in spirit of wine, and 
volatility in the heat of boiling water, &c. 
it is plain that they may be variously mixed 
with each other, or the dearer sophisticated 
with the cheaper, without any possibility of 
discovering the abuse by any of the before- 
mentioned trials. Perfumers assert that 
the smell and taste are the only certain 
tests of which the nature of the thing will 
admit. For example, if a bark should have 
in every respect the appearance of good 
cinnamon, and should be proved indisput- 
ably to be the genuine bark of the cinna- 
mon tree ; yet if it want the cinnamon fla- 
vour, or has it but in a low degree, we reject 
it ; and the case is the same with the essen- 


tial oil of cinnamon. It is only from use 
and habit, or comparisons with specimens 
of known quality, that we can judg of the 
goodness, either of the drugs themselves, or 
of their oils. 


Jlnd Methods of detecting them. 

PAINTERS' colours, not only those used 
by artists, such as ultramarine, carmine, 
and lake, Antwerp blue, chrome yellow, and 
Indian ink; but also the coarser colours used 
by the common house-painter, are more or 
less adulterated. Thus, of the latter kind, 
white lead is mixed with carbonate or sul- 
phate of barytes ; vermillion with red lead. 


The following hints may serve to detect 
these frauds. 

Ultramarine, if genuine, should speedily 
become deprived of its colour when thrown 
into concentrated nitric acid. 

Carmine should be totally soluble in 
liquid ammonia. It is often mixed with 
vermillion. This substance is not acted on 
by liquid. 

Madder and carmine lakes should be 
totally soluble by boiling in concentrated 
solution of soda or potash. 

Antwerp blue should not become de- 
prived of its colour when thrown into liquid 

Chrome yellow should not effervesce with 
nitric acid. 

Indian Ink ; the best kind breaks splin- 


tery, with a smooth glossy fracture, and 
feels soft, and not gritty, when rubbed 
against the teeth. 

White lead should be completely soluble 
in nitric acid, and the solution should re- 
main transparent when mingled with a so- 
lution of sulphate of soda, 

Vermillion should become totally vola- 
tilized on being exposed to a red heat ; and 
it should impart a red colour to spirit of 
wine, when digested with it. 






THE fraud may be detected by pouring" 
upon one part of the suspected soap, re- 
duced to thin shavings, six parts, by weight, 
of rectified spirit of wine; and, suffering 
the mixture to stand in a slightly stopped 
bottle in a warm place, the soap, if genuine, 
c 3 


will become dissolved : but if adulterated 
with clay, this substance will be left be- 

Potatoes are soaked in water to augment 
their weight., 

The inferior sorts of butter are frequently 
adulterated with hogs' lard. 

In the manufacture of printing paper, a 
large quantity of plaster of Paris is often 
added to the paper stuff, to increase the 
weight of the manufactured article. 

The selvage of cloth is often dyed with a 
permanent colour, and artfully stitched to 
the edge of cloth dyed with a fugitive 

The frauds committed in the tanning of 
skins, and in the manufacture of cutlery 
and jewellery, exceed belief, 



" IN coal sheds the measure as well as 
the mixing one kind of coal with another is 
often scandalous*; for the Act of Parliament 
does not take the least notice of the small 
measures. It is a known fact when a frau- 
dulent dealer orders in a room of coals, for 
every chaldron of 36 bushels, if he does not 
send them out at the rate of 42 bushels 
again, he will be dissatisfied with his mea- 
sure. This is extremely hard upon the 
lower class of people, who are only able to 
purchase a peck, or half a peck, at a time : 
and let the measure be ever so bad, they 
have no means of redress. 

* Eddington on the Coal Trade, p. 94. 
c 4 


" With regard to the measure of coal, as 
offered in the market, it may be remarked 
that many coal -merchants will promise to 
give 68 sacks to a room : but here it should 
be observed, that much depends on the size 
and shape, or, as it is called, the roundness 
of the coal, viz. any of the Wall's End, 
Wellington, Benton,Heaton, Hebron, Percy, 
Main, Cowper, Blyth, and Hartley, being all 
put on board of ships in large masses and 
blocks, round as out of the mine ; it is cer- 
tain, that, in every room of five chaldron 
and a half the ingrain, when the round are 
broken, every room will measure out from 
to 6 chaldron again." 

Mr. Edington observes, that " the differ- 
ence is so great between round coals, with 
regard to absolute quantity, and small damp 
and dry coals, that no means can be ob- 


tained to correct and prevent abuse. Thus* 
if a vat of Wall's End coals be measured 
from the ship, such measure as the meter 
gives, turn over the vat, and break the 
round coals to the size the merchant sends 
them out to his customers, then fill up the 
vat again, and it will be found to over-run 
a bushel, more or less according to the 
roundness of the coal. Secondly, a score is 
measured out of Wall's End coals in the 
pool, into a barge having four rooms, each 
containing five chaldrons and a half the in- 
grain ; no sooner does the barge arrive at 
the wharf, than the round coals are broken, 
and, if very dry, the coals being wetted, will 
increase in bulk; nor is the coal merchant 
satisfied if he does not by this practice send 
out from six to six and a quarter, or even 
six and a half, chaldron from each room, 
c 5 


" The loss in the use of small coals is more 
considerable to the poor, who cannot keep 
large fires. When they want their break- 
fast or dinner, the time they can spare is 
limited; and to have their water sooner 
boiling, or their meals quicker ready, they 
must make use of the poker, and lose a 
great deal of coal. Hence more bright coal 
goes to the dust-hole of the poor man, than 
to the dust-hole of a rich family, where, the 
fire being large, the small coal has more 
chance of burning. 

" The loss is still greater to the poor, in 
consequence of the inferior sorts of coal 
which are sold to them. If it is the light 
sort, it burns too quick, and they consume 
double the quantity ; if the strong sort, 
it burns too slow, and is nearly as waste- 
ful ; great quantity of it then goes to 


the dust-hole without being lighted at 

" An incorrect opinion is often enter- 
tained, that the real quantity of coal con- 
tained in a sack is lessened by separating 
or screening the small from the round coals ; 
but we must recollect, that any compact 
body occupies less space than is required to 
contain the same matter, reduced to smaller 
irregular pieces, or to powder. Now the 
screening only takes away the finest dusty 
part of the coals, and admits more small 
pieces of round coals to be filled into the 





THE abominable custom daily practised of 
blowing, as it is technically called, or inflat- 
ing butchers' meat, especially the joints of 
veal and Iamb, with the breath respired 
from the lungs, to make it appear white and 
glistening, is a practice which claims the in- 
terference of the Magistrates. 

This detestable custom unquestionably 
renders meat not only unfit for keeping, but 
likewise unwholesome for human food. I 
have the authority of a celebrated physiolo- 
gist* to state, that the meat is capable of 
communicating the most loathsome diseases ; 
besides, it is such a dirty trick, that the very 
idea of it is sufficient to disgust a person at 
every thing which comes from a butchers' 

* A. Carlisle, Esq. 


shop for who can bear the notion of eating 
meat, the cellular substance of which has 
been filled with air of a dirty fellow, who 
may at the same time be perhaps inflicted 
with the very worst of diseases. 

But not only butchers' meat, but sea fish, 
especially cod, haddock, and whiting, are in 
a similar manner often blown, to make them 
appear large and plump ; a quill, or the stem 
of a tobacco pipe, being inserted into the 
orifice at the belly of the fih, and a hole 
being made under the fin, which is next the 
gill, the breath is blown in, to extend the 
bulk of the fish. 

This imposition is detected by placing the 
thumb on each side of the orifice and press- 
ing it hard, when the air will be perceived 
to escape. Meat that has been inflated may 
'at once be recognised by the cellular mem- 
brane being distended. 


Another pernicious custom of rendering- 
meat unwholesome, is, to throw the beast, 
previous to its being killed, into a state of 
disease, by over-driving it ; for the fever into 
which the furious animal is often thrown, by 
the cruelty of the drover, is frequently 
raised to madness. No person would chuse 
to eat the flesh of an animal which died in a 
high fever ; yet that is actually the case with 
all over-drove cattle. The flesh of such 
animals is at once distinguished at the 
butchers' shambles, by the cellular mem- 
brane being filled with blood, which makes 
the meat appear of a more florid colour, and 
adds to its weight. 

Another highly blameable custom to ren- 
der meat unwholesome, is, to keep animals 
without food for four or five days together, 
to save the butcher the trouble of clearing 
the stomach and intestines more readily. 


Oxen are usually kept without food for four 
or five days before they are killed ; calves, 
sheep and pigs, each of them two or three 
days. Fasting so long renders the animals 
unhealthy, and makes them restless, fever- 
ish, and diseased. 

It is also a common practice in some graz- 
ing counties to bring to market the carcases 
of such animals as die of themselves. Po- 
verty may, indeed, oblige people to eat 
such meat; but it would be better for them 
to eat a smaller quantity of what is sound 
and wholesome ; at least it would afford a 
better nourishment, with less danger. 

The injunction given to the Jews not to 
eat of any creature which had died in conse- 
quence of a disease, seems to have a strict 
regard to health, and ought to be observed, 
as a wholesome lesson, by Christians as 
well as Jews. 


The Editor of The Literary Miscellany, 
states, that it is a practice among many but- 
chers to suspend calves by the hind legs, with 
the head downwards, for hours, and to bleed 
them to death slowly. Such processes of 
complicated and lengthened cruelty, too 
horrid to relate, are only for the purpose 
of whitening the flesh. And, with a similar 
view, two calves are often tied together by 
their hind legs, and thrown across ahorse 
when brought to the butcher's shop, so that 
they are suffered to be suspended for hours 
together, with the head downwards, before 
they are killed. 

On the frequent cruelties committed by 
butchers it is not my business to speak. 
Every person resident in this town must have 
noticed, that in drivinga number of sheep and 
oxen, if any of them be untractable, the driver 
often breaks one of the legs of the sheep, or 


cuts the large tendon on the foot of the ox. 
This is a cruelty at which the human mind 

By Heaven's high will the LOWER WORLD is thine ! 
Admit their lives devoted to thy need ; 
Take the appointed forfeit let them bleed : 
Yet add not to the hardships of their state, 
Nor join to servitude oppression's weight ; 
By no unmanly rigors swell distress, 
But, where thou canst, exert thy power to bless, 
Beyond thy wants 'tis barbarous to annoy, 
And but from need 'tis baseness to destroy.* 

PRATT'S Lower World, B. II. 


THE object of all unprincipled modern 
manufacturers seems to be the sparing of 
their time and labour as much as possible, 


and to increase the quantity of the articles 
they produce, without much regard to their 
quality. The ingenuity and perseverance 
of self-interest is proof against prohibitions, 
and contrives to elude the vigilance of the 
most active government. 

The eager and insatiable thirst for gain, 
which seems to be a leading characteristic 
of the times, calls into action every human 
faculty, and gives an irresistible impulse to 
the power of invention ; and where lucre 
becomes the reigning principle, the possi- 
ble sacrifice of even a fellow creature's life 
is a secondary consideration. In reference 
to the deterioration of almost all the neces- 
saries and comforts of existence, it may be 
justly observed, in a civil as well as a re- 
ligious sense, that " in the midst of life we 
are in death." 



IT requires not much reflection to become 
convinced that the waters which issue from 
the recesses of the earth, and form springs, 
wells, rivers, or lakes, often materially differ 
from each other in their taste and other 
obvious properties. There are few people 
who have not observed a difference in the 
waters used for domestic purposes and in 
the arts ; and the distinctions of hard and 
soft water are familiar to every body. 


Water perfectly pure is scarcely ever 
met with in nature. 

It must also be obvious, that the health 
and comfort of families, and the conve- 
niences of domestic life, are materially 
affected by the supply of good and whole- 
some water. Hence a knowledge of the 
quality and salubrity of the different kinds 
of waters employed in the common con- 
cerns of life, on account of the abundant 
daily use we make of them in the prepara- 
tion of food, is unquestionably an object of 
considerable importance, and demands our 

The effects produced by the foreign mat- 
ters which water may contain, are more 
considerable, and of greater importance, 
than might at first be imagined. It cannot 
be denied, that such waters as are hard, or 


loaded with earthy matter, have a decided 
effect upon some important functions of the 
human body. They increase the distress- 
ing symptoms under which those persons 
labour who are afflicted with what is com- 
monly called gravel complaints ; and many 
other ailments might be named, that are 
always aggravated by the use of waters 
abounding in saline and earthy substances. 

The purity of the waters employed in 
some of the arts and manufactures, is an 
object of not less consequence. In the 
process of brewing malt liquors, soft water 
is preferable to hard. Every brewer knows 
that the largest possible quantity of the 
extractive matter of the malt is obtained in 
the least possible time, and at the smallest 
cost, by means of soft water. 

In the art of the dyer, hard water not 


only opposes the solution of several dye 
stuffs, but it also alters the natural tints of 
some'delicate colours ; whilst in others again, 
it precipitates the earthy and saline matters 
with which it is impregnated, into the deli- 
cate fibres of the stuff, and thus impedes 
the softness and brilliancy of the dye. 

The bleacher cannot use with advantage 
waters impregnated with earthy salts ; and 
a minute portion of iron imparts to the cloth 
a yellowish hue. 

To the manufacturer of painters' colours, 
water as pure as possible is absolutely es- 
sential for the successful preparation of 
several delicate pigments. Carmine, mad- 
der lake, ultramarine, and Indian yellow, 
cannot be prepared without perfectly pure 

For the steeping or raiting of flax, soft 


water is absolutely necessary ; in hard water 
the flax may be immersed for months, till its 
texture be injured, and still the ligneous 
matter will not be decomposed, and the 
fibres properly separated. 

In the culinary art, the effects of water 
more or less pure are likewise obvious. 
Good and pure water softens the fibres of 
animal and vegetable matters more readily 
than such as is called hard. Every cook 
knows that dry or ripe pease, and other 
farinaceous seeds, cannot readily be boiled 
soft in hard water; because the farina of 
the seed is not perfectly soluble in water 
loaded with earthy salts. 

Green esculent vegetable substances are 
more tender when boiled in soft water than 
in hard water ; although hard water imparts 
to them a better colour. The effects of hard 


and soft water may be easily shown in the ' 
following manner. 


Let two separate portions of tea-leaves be 
macerated, by precisely the same processes, 
in circumstances all alike, in similarly 
and separate vessels, the one containing hard 
and the other soft water, either hot or cold, 
the infusion made with the soft water will 
have by far the strongest taste, although 
it possesses less colour than the infusion 
made with the hard water. It will strike a 
more intense black with a solution of sul- 
phate of iron, and afford a more abundant 
precipitate, with a solution of animal jelly, 
which at once shews that soft water has 
extracted more tanning matter, and more 


gallic acid, from the tea-leaves, than could 
be obtained from them under like circum- 
stances by means of hard water. 

Many animals which are accustomed to 
drink soft water, refuse hard water; Horses 
in particular prefer the former. Pigeons 
refuse hard water when they have been ac- 
customed to soft water. 


A GOOD criterion of the purity of water 
fit for domestic purposes, is its softness. 
This quality is at once obvious by the touch, 
if we only wash our hands in it with soap. 
Good water should be beautifully transpa- 
rent: a slight opacity indicates extraneous 
matter. To judge of the perfect transpa- 
rency of water, a quantity of it should be 


put into a deep glass vessel, the larger the 
better, so that we can look down perpendi- 
cularly into a considerable mass of the fluid ; 
we may then readily discover the slightest 
degree of muddiness much better than if 
the water be viewed through the glass 
placed between the eye and the light. It 
should be perfectly colourless, devoid of 
odour, and its taste soft and agreeable. It 
should send out air-bubbles when poured 
from one vessel into another ; it should boil 
pulse soft, and form with soap am uniform 
opaline fluid, which does not separate after 
standing for several hours. 

It is to the presence of common air and 
carbonic acid gas that common water owes 
ils taste, and many of the good effects 
which it produces on animals and vege- 
tables. Spring water, which contains more 


air, has a more lively taste than river 

Hence the insipid and vapid taste of newly 
boiled water, from which these gases are 
expelled: fish cannot live in water deprived 
of those elastic fluids. 

100 cubic inches of the New River water, 
with which part of this metropolis is sup* 
plied, contains 2,25 of carbonic acid, and 
1,25 of common air. It contains, beside a 
minute portion of muriate of lime, carbonate 
of lime, and muriate of soda. The water 
of the river Thames contains rather a larger 
quantity of common air, and a smaller por- 
tion of carbonic acid. 

Water is freed from foreign matter by 
distillation: and for any chemical process 
in which accuracy is requisite, distilled 

water must be used. 

D 2 



HARD waters may, in general, be cured in 
part, by dropping into them a solution of 
sub-carbonate of potash ; or, if the hardness 
be owing only to the presence of super- 
carbonate of lime, mere boiling will greatly 
remedy the defect ; part of the carbonic 
acid flies off, and a neutral carbonate of 
lime falls down to the bottom : it may then 
be used for washing, scarcely curdling soap. 
But if the hardness be owing in part to 
sulphate of lime, boiling does not soften it 
at all. 

When spring water is used for washing, 
it is advantageous to leave it for some time 
exposed to the open air in a reservoir with 


a large surface. Part of the carbonic acid 
becomes thus dissipated, and part of the 
carbonate of lime falls to the bottom. Mr. 
Dalton* has observed that the more any 
spring is drawn from, the softer the water 


Rain Water, 

COLLECTED with every precaution as it 
descends from the clouds, and at a distance 
from large towns, or any other object ca- 
pable of impregnating the atmosphere with 

* Dalton, Manchester Memoirs, vol. iv. p. 55. 


foreign matters, approaches more nearly to 
a state of purity than perhaps any other 
natural water. Even collected under these 
circumstances, however, it invariably con- 
tains a portion of common air and carbonic 
acid gas. The specific gravity of rain water 
scarcely differs from that of distilled water ; 
and from the minute portions of the foreign 
ingredients which it generally contains, it 
is very soft, and admirably adapted for 
many culinary purposes, and various pro- 
cesses in different manufactures and the 

Snow Water. 

Fresh-fallen snow, melted without the 
contact of air, appears to be nearly free 
from air. Gay-Lussacand Humboldt, how- 



ever, affirm, that it contains nearly the usual 
proportion of air. 

Water from melted ice does not contain 
so much air. Dew has been supposed to be 
saturated with air. 

Snow water has long lain under the im- 
putation of occasioning those strumous 
swellings in the neck which deform the 
inhabitants of many of the .Alpine vallies ; 
but this opinion is not supported by any 
well-authenticated indisputable facts, and 
is rendered still more improbable, if not 
entirely overturned, by the frequency of 
the disease in Sumatra*, where ice and 
snow are never sefen. 

In high northern latitudes, thawed snow 

Marsden's History of Sumatra. 


forms the constant drink of the inhabitants 
during winter; and the vast masses of ice 
which float on the polar seas, afford an 
abundant supply of fresh water to the ma- 

Spring Water 

Includes well-water and all others that 
arise from some depth below the surface of 
the earth, and which are used at the foun- 
tain-head, or at least before they have run 
any considerable distance exposed to the 
air. Indeed, springs may be considered as 
rain water which has passed through the 
fissures of the earth, and, having accumu- 
lated at the bottom of declivities, rises again 
to the surface, forming springs and wells. 


As wells take their origin at some depth 
from the surface, and below the influence 
of the external atmosphere,, their tempera- 
ture is in general pretty uniform during 
every vicissitude of season, and always se- 
veral degrees lower than the atmosphere.. 
They differ from one another according to 
the nature of the strata through which they 
issue; for though the ingredients usually 
existing in them are in such minute quan- 
tities as to impart to the water no striking 
properties, and do not render it unfit for 
common purposes, yet they modify its na- 
ture very considerably. Hence the water 
of some springs is said to be hard, of others 
soft, some sweet, others brackish, accord-, 
ing to the nature and degree of the impreg- 
nating ingredients. 

Common springs are insensibly changed 



in mineral or medicinal springs, as their 
foreign contents become larger or more un- 
usual ; or, in some instances, they derive 
medicinal celebrity from the absence of 
those ingredients usually occurring in 
spring-water ; as, for example, is the case 
with the Malvern spring, which is nearly 
pure water. 

Almost all spring-waters possess the pro- 
perty termed hardness in a greater or less 
degree ; a property which depends chiefly 
upon the presence of super-carbonate, or 
of sulphate of lime, or of both ; and the 
quantity of these earthy salts varies very 
considerably in different instances. Mr. 
Dalton* has shewn that one grain of sul- 

* Manchester Memoirs, vol. x. 1819. 


phate of lime, contained in 2000 grains of 
water, converts it into the hardest spring 
water that is commonly met with. 

The waters of deep wells are usually much 
harder than those springs which overflow 
the mouth of the well ; but there are some 
exceptions to this rule. 

The purest springs are those which occur 
in primitive rocks, or beds of gravel, or 
filter through sand or silicious strata. la 
general, large springs are purer than small 
ones ; and our old wells contain finer water 
than those that are new, as the soluble parts 
through which the water filters in channels 
under ground become gradually washed 



River Water 

Is a term applied to every running stream 
or rivulet exposed to the air, and always 
flowing in an open channel. It is formed of 
spring water, which, by exposure, becomes 
more pure, and of running land or surface 
water, which, although turbid from particles 
of the al u vial soil suspended in it, is other- 
wise very pure. It is purest when it runs over 
a gravelly or rocky bed, and when its course 
is swift. It is generally soft, and more free 
from earthy salts than spring water; but 
it usually contains less common air and 
carbonic acid gas ; for, by the agitation of a 
long currant, and exposed to the tempera- 
ture of the atmosphere, part of its carbonic 
acid gas is disengaged, and the lime held 


in solution by it is in part precipitated, 
the loss of which contributes to the softness 
of the water. Its specific gravity thereby 
becomes less, the taste not so harsh, but less 
fresh and agreeable ; and out of a hard 
spring is often made a stream of sufficient 
purity for most of the purposes where a 
soft water is required. 

Some streams, however, that arise from 
clean silicious beds, and flow in a sandy or 
stony channel, are from the outset remarkably 
pure ; such as the mountain lakes and rivu- 
lets in the rocky districts of Wales, the 
source of the beautiful waters of the Dee, 
and numberless other rivers that flow 
through the hollow of every valley. Swit- 
zerland has long been celebrated for the 
purity and excellence of its waters, which 
pour in copious streams from the mouu- 


tains, and give rise to the finest rivers in 

Thames Water. 

Some rivers, however, that do not take 
their rise from a rocky soil, and are indeed 
at first considerably charged with foreign 
matter, during a long course, even over a 
richly cultivated plain, become remarkably 
pure as to saline contents ; but often fouled 
with mud containing much animal and ve- 
getable matter, which are rather suspended 
than held in true solution. Such is the water 
of the river Thames, which, taken up at Lon- 
don at low water mark, is very soft, and 
good ; and after rest, it contains but a very 
small portion of any thing that could prove 


pernicious or impede any manufacture. 
It is also excellently fitted for sea-store; 
but it then undergoes a remarkable sponta- 
neous change, when preserved in wooden 
casks. No water carried to sea becomes 
putrid sooner than that of the Thames. But 
the mode now adopted in the navy, of sub- 
stituting 1 iron tanks for wooden casks, tends 
greatly to obviate the disadvantage. 

Whoever will consider the situation of 
the Thames, and the immense population 
along its banks for so many miles, must at 
once perceive the prodigious accumulation 
of animal matters of all kinds, which by 
means of the commmon sewers constantly 
make their way into it. These matters are, 
no doubt, in part, the cause of the putrefac- 
tion which it is well known to undergo at 
sea; and of the carburetted and sulphuretted 


hydrogen gases which are evolved from it. 
When a wooden cask is opened, after being 
kept a month or two, a quantity of carbur etted 
and sulphuretted hydrogen escapes, and the 
water is so black and offensive as scarcely 
to be borne. Upon racking it off, however, 
into large earthen vessels, and exposing* it 
to the air, it gradually deposits a quantity 
of black slimy mud, becomes clear as crys- 
tal, and remarkably sweet and palatable. 

It might, at first sight, be expected that 
the water of the Thames, after having re- 
ceived all the contents of the sewers, drains, 
and water courses of a large town, should 
acquire thereby such impregnation with 
foreign matters, as to become very impure ; 
but it appears, from the most accurate ex- 
periments that have been made, that those 
kinds of impurities have no perceptible in- 


fluence on the salubrious quality of a mass 
of water so immense, and constantly kept in 
motion by the action of the tides. 

Some traces of animal matter may, how- 
ever, be detected in the water of the Thames ; 
for if nitrate of lead be dropped into it * ; 
" you will find that it becomes milky, and 
that a white powder falls to the bottom, 
which dissolves without effervescence in 
nitric acid. It is, therefore, (says Dr. Thom- 
son) a combination of oxide of lead with 
some animal matter." 

* Observations on the Water with which Tun- 
bridge Wells is chiefly supplied for Domestic Pur- 
poses, by Dr. Thomson ; forming an Appendix to an 
Analysis of the Mineral Waters of Tunbridge Wells, 
by Dr. Scudamore. 



To acquire a knowledge of the general 
nature of common water, it is only necessary 
to add to it a few chemical tests, which will 
quickly indicate the presence or absence of 
the substances that may be expected. 

Almost the only salts contained in com- 
mon waters are the carbonates, sulphates, 
and muriates of soda, lime, and magnesia: 
and sometimes a very minute portion of iron 
may also be detected in them. 


Fill a wine-glass with distilled water, 
and add to it a few drops of the solution of 


soap in alcohol, the water will remain tran* 

This test is employed for ascertaining the 
presence of earthy salts in waters. Hence 
it produces no change when mingled with 
distilled or perfectly pure water ; but when 
added to water containing earthy salts, a 
white flocculent matter becomes separated, 
which speedily collects on the surface of 
the fluid. Now, from the quantity of floc- 
culent matter produced, in equal quantities 
of water submitted to the test, a tolerable 
notion may be formed of the degrees of 
hardness of different kinds of water, at 
least 80 far as regards the fitness of the 
water for the ordinary purposes of domestic 
economy. This may be rendered obvious 
in the following manner. 


Fill a number of wine-glasses with dif- 
ferent kinds of pump or well water, and let 
fall into each glass a few drops of the solu- 
tion of soap in alcohol. A turbidness will 
instantly ensue, and a flocculent matter 
collect on the surface of the fluid, if the 
mixture be left undisturbed. The quantity 
of flocculent matter will be in the ratio s>f 
the quantity of earthy salts contained in the 
water. // -^ 

It is obvious that the action of this test is 
not discriminative with regard to the che- 
mical nature of the earthy salt present in 
the water. It serves only to indicate the 
presence or absence of those kinds of sub- 
stances which occasion that quality in water 
which is usually called hardness, and which 


is always owing to salts with an earthy 

If we wish to know the nature of the 
different acids and earths contained in the 
water, the following tests may be em- 


Add about twenty drops of a solution of 
oxalate of ammonia, to half a wine-glass of 
the water ; if a white precipitate ensues, we 
conclude that the water contains lime. 

By means of this test, one grain of lime 
may be detected in 24,250 of water. 

If this test occasion a white precipitate 
in water taken fresh from the pump or 
spring, and not after the water has been 
boiled and suffered to grow cold, the lime 
is dissolved in the water by an excess of 


carbonic acid ; and if it continues to pro- 
duce a precipitate in the water which has 
been concentrated by boiling, we then are 
sure that the lime is combined with a fixed 


To detect the presence of iron, add to a 
wine-glassful of the water a few drops of an 
infusion of nut-galls ; or better, suffer a nut- 
gall to be suspended in it for twenty-four 
hours, which will cause the water to acquire 
a blueish black colour, if iron be present. 


Add a few grains of muriate of barytes, 
to half a wine-glass of the water to be ex- 
amined ; if it produces a turbidness which 


does not disappear by the admixture of a 
few drops of muriatic acid, the presence of 
sulphuric acid is rendered obvious. 


If a few drops of a solution of nitrate of 
silver occasion a milkiness with the water, 
which vanishes again by the copious ad- 
dition of liquid ammonia, we have reason to 
believe that the water contains a salt, one 
of the constituent parts of which is muriatic 


If lime water or barytic water occasions a 
precipitate which again vanishes by the 
admixture of muriatic acid, then carbonic 
acid is present in the water. 


If a solution of phosphate of soda produce 
a milkiness with the water, after a previous 
addition to it of a similar quantity of neutral 
carbonate of ammonia, we may then expect 
magnesia. The application of this test is 
best made in the following manner : 

Concentrate a quantity of the water to be 
examined to about -fa part of its bulk, and 
drop into about half a wine-glassful, about 
five grains of neutral carbonate of am- 
monia. No magnesia becomes yet preci- 
pitated if this earth be present; but on 
adding a like quantity of phosphate of soda, 
the magnesia falls down, as an insoluble 
salt. It is essential that the carbonate of 
ammonia be neutral. 


The presence of oxygen gas loosely com- 
bined in water may readily be discovered 
in the following manner. 


Fill a vial with water, and add to it a 
small quantity of green sulphate of iron. 
If the water be entirely free of oxygen, and 
if the vessel be well stopped and completely 
filled, the solution is transparent; but if 
otherwise, it soon becomes slightly turbid, 
from the oxide of iron attracting the oxygen, 
and a small portion of it, in this more highly 
oxidated state, leaving the acid and being 

If we examine the different waters which 
are used for the ordinary purposes of life, 


and judge of them by the above tests, we 
shall find them to differ considerably from 
each other. Some contain a large quantity 
of saline and earthy matters, whilst others 
are nearly pure. The differences are pro- 
duced by the great solvent power which 
water exercises upon most substances. 
Hence wells should never be lined with 
bricks, which render soft water hard ; or, if 
bricks be employed, they should be bedded 
in and covered with cement. 


THE deleterious effect of lead, when taken 
into the stomach, is at present so univer- 
sally known, that it is quite unnecessary to 


adduce any argument in proof of its dange- 
rous tendency. 

The antients were, upwards of 2000 years 
ago, as well aware of the pernicious quality 
of this metal as we are at the present day ; 
and indeed they appeared to have been 
much more apprehensive of its effects, and 
scrupulous in the application of it to pur- 
poses of domestic economy. 

Their precautions may have been occasi- 
onally carried to an unnecessary length. 
This was the natural consequence of the im- 
perfect state of experimental knowledge at 
that period. When men were unable to 
detect the poisonous matters to be over 

scrupulous in the use of such water, was an 

error on the right side. 

The moderns, on the other hand, in part, 

perhaps, from an ill-founded confidence, and 



inattention to a careful and continued exa- 
mination of its effects, have , fallen into an 
opposite error. 

There can be no doubt that the mode of pre- 
serving water intended for food or drink in 
leaden reservoirs, is exceedingly improper; 
and although pure water exercises no sen- 
sible action upon metallic lead, provided air 
be excluded, the metal is certainly acted on 
by the water when air is admitted : this effect 
is so obvious, that it cannot escape the no- 
tice of the least attentive observer. 

The white line which may be seen at the 
surface of the water preserved in leaden 
cisterns, where the metal touches the water 
and where the air is admitted, is a carbo- 
nate of lead, formed at the expense of the 
metal. This substance, when taken into the 
stomach, is highly deleterious to health. 


This was the reason which induced the an- 
tients to condemn leaden pipes for the con- 
veyance of water ; it having been remarked 
that persons who swallowed the sediment of 
such water, became affected with disorders 

ferent potable waters have unequal 
t powers on this metal. In some 

s -"^i 

places the use of leaden pumps has been 
discontinued, from the expence entailed 
upon the proprietors by the constant want 
of repair. Dr. Lambf states an instance 
where the proprietor of a well ordered his 
plumber to make the lead of a pump of 
double the thickness of the metal usually 
employed for pumps, to save the charge of 

* Sir G. Baker, Med. Trans, vol. i. p. 280. 
t Lamb on Spring Water. 

E 3 


repairs ; because he had observed that the 
water was so hard, as he called it, that it 
corroded the lead very soon. 

The following instance is related by Sir 
George Baker*: 

" A gentleman was the father of a nume- 
rous offspring, having had one-and-twenty 
children, of whom eight died young, and 
thirteen survived their parents. During 
their infancy, and indeed until they had 
quitted the place of their usual residence, 
they were all remarkably unhealthy ; being 
particularly subject to disorders of the sto- 
mach and bowels. The father, during many 
years, was paralytic ; the mother, for a long 
time, was subject to colics and bilious ob- 

* Medical Trans, vol. i. p. 420. 


" After the death of the parents, the fa- 
mily sold the house which they had so long 
inhabited. The purchaser found it neces- 
sary to repair the pump. This was made 
of lead ; which, upon examination, was 
found to be so corroded, that several perfo- 
rations were observed in the cylinder in 
which the bucket plays ; and the cistern in 
the upper part was reduced to the thinness 
of common brown paper, and was full of 
holes, like a sieve." 

I have myself seen numerous instances 
where leaden cisterns have been completely 
corroded by the action of water with which 
they were in contact: and there is, perhaps, 
not a plumber who cannot give testimony of 
having experienced numerous similar in- 
stances in the practices of his trade. 

I have been frequently called upon to 


examine leaden cisterns, which had become 
leaky on account of the action of the water 
which they contained ; and I could adduce 
an instance of a legal controversy having 
taken place to settle the disputes between 
the proprietors of an estate and a plumber, 
originating from a similar cause the plum- 
ber being accused of having furnished a 
faulty reservoir; whereas the case was 
proved to be owing to the chemical action of 
the water on the lead. Water containing a 
large quantity of common air and carbonic 
acid gas, always acts very sensibly on me- 
tallic lead. 

Water which has no sensible action, in 
its natural state, upon lead, may acquire 
the capability of acting on it by heteroge- 
neous matter, which it may accidentally re- 
ceive. Numerous instances have shewn that 


vegetable matter, such as leaves, falling into 
leaden cisterns filled with water, imparted 
to the water a considerable solvent power 
of action on the lead, which in its natural 
state it did not possess. Hence the neces- 
sity of keeping leaden cisterns clean ; and 
this is the more necessary, as their situations 
expose them to accidental impurities. The 
noted saturnine colic of Amsterdam, des- 
cribed by Tronchen, originated from such a 
circumstance; as also the case related by 
Van Swieten*, of a whole family afflicted 
with the same complaint, from such a cis- 
tern. And it is highly probable that the 
case of disease recorded by Dr. Duncanf, 

* Van Swieten ad Boerhaave, Aphorisms, 1060, 

t Medical Comment. Dec. 2, 1794. 


proceeded more from some foulness in the 
cistern, than from the solvent power of the 
water. In this instance the officers of the 
packet boat used water for their drink and 
cooking out of a leaden cistern, whilst the 
sailors used the water taken from the same 
source, except that theirs was kept in 
wooden vessels. The consequence was, 
that all the officers were seized with the 
colic, and all the men continued healthy. 

The carelessness of the bulk of mankind, 
Dr. Lambe very justly observes, to these 
things, " is so great, that to repeat them 
again and again cannot be wholly useless." 
Although the great majority of persons 
who daily use water kept in leaden cisterns 
receive no sensible injury, yet the apparent 
salubrity must be ascribed to the great slow- 


ness of its operation, and the minuteness of 
the dose taken, the effects of which become 
modified by different causes and different 
constitutions, and according to the predis- 
positions to diseases inherent in different 
individuals. The supposed security of the 
multitude who use the water with impunity 
amounts to no more than presumption, in 
favour of any individual, which may or may 
not be confirmed by experience. 

Independent of the morbid susceptibility 
of impressions which distinguish certain ha- 
bits, there is, besides, much variety in the 
original constitution of the human frame, of 
which we are totally ignorant. 

" The susceptibility or proneness to dis- 
ease of each individual, must be esteemed 
peculiar to himself. Confiding to the expe- 
E 6 


rience of others is a ground of security 
which may prove fallacious ; and the danger 
can with certainty be obviated only by 
avoiding its source. And ^considering the 
various and complicated changes of the 
human frame, under different circumstances 
and at different ages, it is neither impossible 
nor improbable that the substances taken 
into the system at one period, and even for 
a series of years, with apparent impunity, 
may, notwithstanding, at another period, be 
eventually the occasion of disease and of 

" The experience of a single person, or of 
many persons, however numerous, is quite 
incompetent to the decision of a question of 
this nature. 

" The pernicious effects of an intemperate 
use of spirituous liquors is not less certain 


because we often see habitual drunkards 
enjoy a good state of health, and arrive at old 
age : and the same may be said of individuals 
who indulge in vices of all kinds, evidently 
destructive to life ; many of whom, in spite 
of their bad habits, attain to a vigorous old 

In confirmation of these remarks, we ad- 
duce the following account of the effect of 
water contaminated by lead, given by Sir 
G. Baker: 

" The most remarkable case on the sub- 
ject that now occurs to my memory, is that 
of Lord Ashburnham's family, in Sussex; 
to which spring water was applied, from a 
considerable distance, in leaden pipes. In 
consequence, his Lordship's servants were 

* Lambe on Spring Water. 


every year tormented with colic, and some 
of them died. An 'eminent physician, of 
Battle, who corresponded with me on the 
subject, sent up some gallons of that water, 
which were analysed by Dr. Higgins, who 
reported that the water had contained more 
than the common quantity of carbonic acid ; 
and that he found in it lead in solution, 
which he attributed to the carbonic acid. 
In consequence of this, Lord Ashburnham 
substituted wooden for leaden pipes; and 
from that time his family have had no par- 
ticular complaints in their bowels," 
Richmond, Sept. 27, 1802. 


ONE of the most delicate tests for detect- 
ing lead, is water impregnated with sulphu- 


retted hydrogen gas, which instantly im- 
parts to the fluid containing the minutest 
quantity of lead, a brown or blackish tinge. 
This test is so delicate that distilled water, 
when condensed by a leaden pipe in a still 
tub, is effected by it. To shew the action of 
this test, the following experiments will 


Pour into a wine-glass containing distilled 
water, an equal quantity of water impreg- 
nated with sulphuretted hydrogen gas: no 
change will take place ; but if a J of a grain 
of aeetate of lead (sugar of lead of com- 
merce,) be added, the mixture will instantly 
turn brown and dark-coloured. 


To apply this test, one part of the sus- 
pected water need merely to be mingled with 
a like quantity of water impregnated with 
sulphuretted hydrogen. Or better, a larger 
quantity, a gallon for example, of the water 
may be concentrated by evaporation to 
about half a pint, and then submitted to the 
action of the test. 

Another and more efficient mode of ap- 
plying this test, is, to pass a current of sul- 
phuretted hydrogen gas through the sus- 
pected water in the following manner. 


Take a bottle* (a) or Florence flask, 
adapt to the mouth of it a cork furnished 

* See the Figure, page 89. 


with a glass tube (6) bent at right angles ; 
let one leg of the tube be immersed in the 
vial (c) containing the water to be examined ; 
as shewn in the following sketch. Then 

take one part of the sulphuret of antimony 
of commerce, break it into pieces of half the 
size of split pease, put it into the flask, and 
pour upon it four parts of common concen- 
trated muriatic acid (spirit of salt of com- 
merce.) Sulphuretted hydrogen gas will 
become disengaged from the materials in 
abundance, and pass through the water in 
the vial (c). Let the extrication of the gas 
be continued for about five minutes ; and if 


the minutest quantity of lead be present, the 
water will acquire a dark-brown or blackish 
tinge. The extrication of the gas is facili- 
tated by the application of a gentle heat. 

The action of the sulphuretted hydrogen 
test, when applied in this manner, is asto- 
nishingly great ; for one part of acetate of 
lead may be detected by it, in 20,000 parts 
of water*. 

Sulphate of potash, or sulphate of soda, is 
likewise a very delicate test for detecting 1 

* See An Analysis of the Mineral Waters of Tun- 
bridge Wells, by Dr. Scudamore, p. 55. 

The application of the sulphuretted hydrogen test 
requires some precaution in those cases where other 
metals besides lead may be expected ; because silver, 
quicksilver, tin, copper, and several other metals, are 
effected by it, as well as lead ; but there is no chance 
of these metals being met with in common water. See 
Chemical Tests, third edition, p. 207. 


minute portions of lead. Dr. Thomson* dis- 
covered, by means of it, one part of lead in 
in 100,000 parts of water ; and this acute 
Philosopher considers it as the most une- 
quivocal test of lead that we possess. Dr. 
Thomson remarks that " no other precipi- 
tate can well be confounded with it, except 
sulphate of barytes ; and there is no proba- 
bility of the presence of barytes existing in 
common water." 

Analysis of Tunbridge Wells Water, by Dr. Scu- 
damore, p. 5$. 

8totUterattott of 

IT is sufficiently obvious, that few of those 
commodities, which are the objects of com- 
merce, are adulterated to a greater extent 
than wine. All persons moderately conver- 
sant with the subject, are aware, that a por- 
tion of alum is added to young and meagre 
red wines, for the purpose of brightening 
their colour; that Brazil wood, or the husks 
of elderberries and bilberries*, are employed 
to impart a deep rich purple tint to red 
Port of a pale, faint colour ; that gypsum is 
used to render cloudy white wines transpa- 
rent ; that an additional astringency is im- 

* Dried bilberries are imported from Germany, under 
the fallacious name of berry 'dye. 


parted to immature red wines by means of 
oak-wood sawdust*, and the busks of fil- 
berts; and that a mixture of spoiled foreign 
and home-made wines is converted into the 
wretched compound frequently sold in this 
town by the name of* genuine old Port.' 

Various expedients are resorted to for the 
purpose of communicating particular fla- 
vours to insipid wines. Thus a nutty flavour 
is produced by bitter almonds ; factitious 
Port wine is flavoured with a tincture drawn 
from the seeds of raisins ; and the ingre- 
dients employed to form the bouquet of 
high-flavoured wines, are sweet-brier, oris- 
root, clary, cherry laurel water, and elder 

* Sawdust for this purpose is chiefly supplied by the 
ship-builders, and forms a regular article of commerce 
of the brewers' druggists. 


The flavouring ingredients used by ma- 
nufacturers, may all be purchased by those 
dealers in wine who are initiated in the 
mysteries of the trade ; and even a manu- 
script receipt book for preparing them, 
and. the whole mystery of managing all 
sorts of wines, may be obtained on payment 
of a considerable fee. 

The sophistication of wine with substances 
not absolutely noxious to health, is carried 
to an enormous extent in this metropolis. 
Many thousand pipes of spoiled cyder are 
annually brought hither from the country, 
for the purpose of being converted into fac- 
titious Port wine. The art of manufacturing 
spurious wine is a regular trade of great 
extent in this metropolis. 

" There is, in this city, a certain frater- 
nity of chemical operators, who work under- 


ground in holes, caverns, and dark retire- 
ments, to conceal their mysteries from the 
eyes and observation of mankind. These 
subterraneous philosophers are daily em- 
ployed in the transmutation of liquors, and 
by the power of magical drugs and incan- 
tations, raising under the streets of London 
the choicest products of the hills and val- 
leys of France. They can squeeze Bour- 
deaux out of the sloe, and draw Champagne 
from an apple. Virgil, in that remarkable 

Incultisque rubens pendebit sentibus uva. 

Virg. Eel. iv. 29. 

The ripening grape shall hang on every thorn. 
seems to have hinted at this art, which ean 
turn a plantation of northern hedges into a 
vineyard. These adepts are known among 
one another by the name of Wine-brewers ; 


and, I am afraid, do great injury, not only 
to Her Majesty's customs, but to the bodies 
of many of her good subjects*. " 

Recipes for manufacturing spurious wines 
may be seen in Dr. Reece's Gazette of 
Health, No. 7, and in the Supplement to the 
Pharmacopoeias, p. 245. 


THE particular and separate department 
in this factitious wine trade, called crusting, 
consists of lining the interior surface of 

* Tatler, vol. viii. p. 110, edit. 1797, 8vo. 


fempty wine-bottles, in part, with a red crust 
of super-tartrate of potash , by suffering a 
saturated hot solution of this salt, coloured 
red with a decoction of Rrazil-wood, to crys- 
tallize within them ; and after this simula- 
tion of maturity is perfected, they are filled 
with the compound called Port Wine. 

Other artisans are regularly employed in 
staining the lower extremities of bottle-corks 
with a fine red colour, to appear, on being 
drawn, as if they had been long in contact 
with the wine. 

The preparation of an astringent extract, 
to produce, from spoiled home-made and 
foreign wines, a " genuine old Port," by 
mere admixture ; or to impart to a weak 
wine a rough austere taste, a fine colour, 
and a peculiar flavour ; forms one branch of 
the business of particular wine-coopers ; 


while the mellowing and restoring of spoiled 
white wines, is the sole occupation of men 
who are called refiners of wine. 

We have stated that a crystalline crust 
is formed on the interior surface of bottles, 
for the purpose of misleading the unwary 
into a belief that the wine contained in them 
is of a certain age. A correspondent oper- 
ation is performed on the wooden cask ; the 
whole interior of which is stained artificially 
with a crystalline crust of super-tartrate of 
potash, artfully affixed in a manner pre- 
cisely similar to that before stated. Thus 
the wine-merchant, after bottling off a pipe 
of wine, is enabled to impose on the under- 
standing of his customers, by taking to 
pieces the cask, and exhibiting the beautiful 
dark coloured and fine crystalline crust, as 
an indubitable proof of the age of the wine ; 


a practice by no means uncommon, to flatter 
the vanity of those who pride themselves 
in their acute discrimination of wines. 

These and many other sophistications, 
which have long been practised with impu- 
nity, are considered as legitimate by those 
who pride themselves for their skill in the 
art of managing, or, according to the fa- 
miliar phrase, doctoring wines. The plea 
alledged in exculpation of them, is, that, 
though deceptive, they are harmless : but 
even admitting this as a palliation, yet they 
form only one department of an art which 
includes other processes of a tendency ab- 
solutely criminal. 

_ Several well-authenticated facts have con- 
vinced me that the adulteration of wine 
with substances deleterious to health, is cer- 
tainly practised oftener than is, perhaps, 



suspected ; and it would be easy to give 
some instances of very serious effects hav- 
ing arisen from wines contaminated with 
deleterious substances, were this a subject 
on which I meant to speak. The following 
statement is copied from the Monthly Ma- 
gazine for March 1811, p. 188. 

" On the 17th of January, the passengers 
by the Highflyer coach, from the north, 
dined, as usual, at Newark. A bottle of 
Port wine was ordered ; on tasting which, 
one of the passengers observed that it had 
an unpleasant flavour, and begged that it 
might be changed. The waiter took away 
the bottle, poured into a fresh decanter 
half the wine which had been objected to, 
and filled it up from another bottle. This 
he took into the room, and the greater 
part was drank by the passengers, who, 


after the coach had set out towards Grarv- 
tham, were seized with extreme sickness ; 
one gentleman in particular, who had taken 
more of the wine than the others, it was 
thought would have died, but has since re- 
covered. The half of the bottle of wine sent 
out of the passengers' room, was put aside 
for the purpose of mixing negus. In the 
evening, Mr. Bland, of Newark, went into 
the hotel, and drank a glass or two of wine 
$nd water. He returned home at his usual 
hour, and went to bed; in the middle of the 
night he was taken so ill, as to induce Mrs. 
Bland to send for his brother, an apothecary 
in the town ; but before that gentleman ar- 
rived, he was dead. An inquest was held, 
and the jury, after the fullest inquiry, and 
the examination of the surgeons by whom 


the body was opened, returned a verdict of 
Died by Poison." 


THE most dangerous adulteration of wine 
is by some preparations of lead, which pos- 
sess the property of stopping the progress 
of acescence of wine, and also of rendering 
white wines, when muddy, transparent. I 
have good reason to state that lead is cer- 
tainly employed for this purpose. The 
effect is very rapid ; and there appears to 
be no other method known, of rapidly re- 
covering ropy wines. Wine merchants per- 
suade themselves that the miniate quantity 


of lead employed for that purpose is per- 
fectly harmless, and that no atom of lead 
remains in the wine* Chemical analysis 
proves the contrary; and the practice of 
clarifying spoiled white wines by means of 
lead, must be pronounced as highly dele- 

Lead* in whatever state it be taken into 
the stomach, occasions terrible diseases ; 
and wine, adulterated with the minutest 
quantity of it, becomes a slow poison. The 
merchant or dealer who practises this dan- 
gerous sophistication, adds the crime of 
murder to that of fraud, and deliberately 
scatters the seeds of disease and death 
among those consumers who contribute to 
his emolument. If to debase the current 
coin of the realm be denounced as a capital 
offence, what punishment should be awarded 


against a practice which converts into poison 
a liquor used for sacred purposes ? 

Dr. Watson* relates, that the method of 
adulterating wine with lead, was at one time 
a common practice in Paris. 

Dr. Warren f states an instance of thirty- 
two persons having become severely ill, 
after drinking white wine that had been 
adulterated with lead. One of them died, 
and one became paralytic. 

In Graham's Treatise on Wine-Making J, 
under the article of Secrets, belonging to 
the mysteries of vintners, p. 31, lead is re- 

* Chemical Essays, vol. viii. p. 369. 

t Medical Trans, vol. ii. p. 80. 

J This book, which has run through many editions, 
may be supposed to have done some mischief. In the 
Vintner's Guide, 4th edit. 1770, p. 67, a lump of sugar 
of lead, of the size of a walnut, and a table-spoonful of 
sal eni^um, are a*irected to be added to a tierce (forty- 
$wo gallons) of muddy wine 3 to cure it of its muddiness* 


commended to prevent wine from becoming 
acid. The following lines are copied from 
Mr. Graham's work : 

" To hinder Wine from turning. 

" Put a pound of melted lead, in fair 
water, into your cask, pretty warm, and stop 
it close," 

" To soften Grey Wine. 

" Put in a little vinegar wherein litharge 
has been well steeped, and boil some honey, 
to draw out the wax. Strain it through a 
cloth, and put a quart of it into a tierce of 
wine, and this will mend it." 


IT is well known that bottles in which 
wine has been kept, are usually cleaned 



by means of shot, which by its rolling motion 
detaches the super-tartrite of potash from 
the sides of the bottles. This practice, which 
is generally pursued by wine-merchants, 
may give rise to serious consequences, as 
will become evident from the following- 

" A gentleman who had never in his life 
experienced a day's illness, and who was 
constantly in the habit of drinking half a 
bottle of Madeira wine after his dinner, was 
taken ill, three hours after dinner, with a se- 
vere pain in the stomach and violent bowel 
colic, which gradually yielded within twelve 
hours to the remedies prescribed by his 
medical adviser. The day following he 
drank the remainder of the same bottle of 

* Philosophical Magazine, 1819, No. 257/p. 229. 


wine which was left the preceding day, and 
within two hours afterwards he was again 
seized with the most violent colliquative 
pains, headach, shiverings, and great pain 
over the whole body. His apothecary be- 
coming suspicious that the wine he had 
drunk might be the cause of the disease, 
ordered the bottle from which the wine had 
been decanted, to be brought to him, with 
a view that he might examine the dregs, if 
any were left. The bottle happening to slip 
out of the hand of the servant, disclosed a 
row of shot wedged forcibly into the angu- 
lar bent-up circumference of it. On ex- 
amining the beads of shot, they crumbled 
into dust, the outer crust (defended by a 
coat of black lead with which the shot is 
glazed) being alone left unacted on, whilst 
the remainder of the metal was dissolved. 
F 6 


The wine, therefore, had become contami- 
nated with lead and arsenic, the shot being- 
a compound of these metals, which no 
doubt had produced the mischief." 


A READY re-agent for detecting the pre- 
sence of lead, or any other deleterious metal 
in wine, is known by the name of the wine 
test. It consists of water saturated with 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas, acidulated with 
muriatic acid. By adding one part of it, to 
two of wine, or any other liquid suspected 
to contain lead, a dark coloured or black 
precipitate will fall down, which does not 
disappear by an addition of muriatic acid 


and this precipitate, dried and fused before 
the blowpipe on a piece of charcoal, yields a 
globule of metallic lead. This test does not 
precipitate iron ; the muriatic acid retains 
iron in solution when combined with sul- 
phuretted hydrogen; and any acid in the 
wine has no effect in precipitating any of 
the sulphur of the test liquor. Or a still 
more efficacious method is, to pass a current 
of sulphuretted hydrogen gas through the 
wine, in the manner described, p. 89, having 
previously acidulated the wine with muria- 
tic acid. 

The wine test sometimes employed is pre- 
pared in the following manner : Mix equal 
parts of finely powdered sulphur and of 
slaked quick-lime, and expose it to a red 
heat for twenty minutes. To thirty-six 
grains of this sulphate of lime, add twenty- 


six grains of stiper-tartrate of potassa ; put 
the mixture into an ounce bottle, and fill up 
the bottle with water that has been previ- 
ously boiled, and suffered to cool. The li- 
quor, after having been repeatedly shaken, 
and allowed to become clear, by the subsi- 
dence of the undissolved matter, may then 
be poured into another phial, into which 
about twenty drops of muriatic acid have 
been previously put. It is then ready for 
use. This test, when mingled with wine 
containing lead or copper, turns the wine of 
a dark-brown or black colour. But the 
mere application of sulphuretted hydrogen 
gas to wine, acidulated by muriatic acid, is 
a far more preferable mode of detecting lead 
in wine. 



M. VOGEL* has lately recommended ace- 
tate of lead as a test for detecting extrane- 
ous colours in red wine. He remarks, that 
none of the substances that can be employed 
for colouring wine, such as the berries of the 
Vaccinium Martillus (bilberries,) elderber- 
ries, and Campeach wood, produce with ge- 
nuine red wine, a greenish grey precipitate, 
which is the colour that is procured by this 

test by means of genuine red wines. 


Wine coloured with the juice of the bil- 
berries, or elderberries, or Campeach wood, 

* Journ. Pharm. iv. 56. (Feb. 1818,) and Thomson's 
Annals, Sept. 1818, p. 232. 


produces, with acetate of lead, a deep blue 
precipitate ; and Brazil-wood, red saunders, 
and the red beet, produce a colour which is 
precipitated red by acetate of lead. Wine 
coloured by beet root is also rendered co- 
lourless by lime water ; but the weakest 
acid brings back the colour. As the colour- 
ing matter of red wines resides in the skin 
of the grape, M. Vogel prepared a quantity 
of skins, and reduced them to powder. In 
this state he found that they communicated 
to alcohol a deep red colour : a paper stained 
with this colour was rendered red by acids 
and green by alkalies. 

M. Vogel made a quantity of red wine 
from black grapes, for the purpose of his ex- 
periments ; and this produced the genuine 
greyish green precipitate with acetate of 
lead. He also found the same coloured 


precipitate in two specimens of red wine, the 
genuineness of which could not be sus* 
pected; the one from Chateau-Margeaux, 
and the other from the neighbourhood of 


EVERY body knows that no product of 
the arts varies so much as wine ; that dif- 
ferent countries, and sometimes the different 
provinces of the same country, produce dif- 
ferent wines. These differences, no doubt, 
must be attributed chiefly to the climate in 
which the vineyard is situated to its cul- 
ture the quantity of sugar contained in the 
grape juice the manufacture of the wine, 


or tbe mode of suffering its fermentation 
to be accomplished. If the grapes be ga- 
thered unripe, the wine abounds with acid ;\ 
but if the fruit be gathered ripe, the wine 
will be rich. When the proportion of sugar 
in the grape is sufficient, and the fermenta- 
tion complete, the wine is perfect and ge- 
nerous. If the quantity of sugar be too 
large, part of it remains undecomposed, as 
the fermentation is languid, and the wine is 
sweet and luscious ; if, on the contrary, it 
contains, even when full ripe, only a small 
portion of sugar, the wine is thin and weak ; 

and if it be bottled before the fermentation 

be completed, part of the sugar remains un- 
decomposed, the fermentation will go on 
slowly in the bottle, and on drawing the 
cork, the wine sparkles in the glass ; as, for 
example, Champagne. Such wines are not 


sufficiently mature. When the must is 
separated from the husk of the red grape 
before it is fermented, the wine has little or 
no colour : these are called white wines. I 
on the contrary, the husks are allowed to 
remain in the must while the fermentation 
is going on, the alcohol dissolves the colour- 
ing matter of the husks, and the wine is co- 
loured : such are called red wines. Hence 
white wines are often prepared from red 
grapes, the liquor being drawn off before it 
has acquired the red colour; for the skin of 
the grape only gives the colour. Besides 
in these principal circumstances, wines 
vary much in flavour. 


ALL wines contain one common and iden- 
tical principle, from which their similar 


effects are produced : namely, brandy or 
alcohol. It is especially by the different 
proportions of brandy contained in wines, 
that they differ most from one another. 
When wine is distilled, the alcohol readily 
separates* The spirit thus obtained is well 
known under the name of brandy. 

All wines contain also a free acid; hence 
they turn blue tincture of cabbage, red. 
The acid found in the greatest abundance 
in grape wines, is tartaric acid. Every 
wine contains likewise a portion of super- 
tartrate of potash, and extractive matter, de- 
rived from the juice of the grape. These 
substances deposit slowly in the vessel in 
which they are kept. To this is owing the 
improvement of wine from age. Those 
wines which effervesce or froth, when 
poured into a glass, contain also carbonic 
acid, to which their briskness is owing. 


The peculiar flavour and odour of different 
kinds of wine probably depend upon the 
presence of a volatile oi7, so small in quan- 
tity that it cannot be separated. 


THE strength of all wines depends upon 
the quantity of alcohol or brandy which they 
contain, Mr. Brande, and Gay Lussac, 
have proved, by very decisive experiments, 
that all wines contain brandy or alcohol 
ready formed. The following is the process 
discovered by Mr. Brande, for ascertaining 
the quantity of spirit, or brandy, contained 
in different sorts of wine. 



Add to eight parts, by measure, of the 
wine to be examined, one part of a concen- 
trated solution of sub-acetate of lead: a 
dense insoluble precipitate will ensue; 
which is a combination of the test liquor with 
the colouring, extractive, and acid matter of 
the wine. Shake the mixture for a few mi- 
nutes, pour the whole upon a filtre, and 
collect the filtered fluid. It contains the 
brandy or spirit, and water of the wine, 
together with a portion of the sub-acetate of 
lead. Add, in small quantities at a time, to 
this fluid, warm, dry, and pure sub-carbo- 
nate of potash (not salt of tartar, or sub- 
carbonate of potash of commerce), which 
has previously been freed from water by 
heat, till the last portion added remains un- 


dissolved. The brandy or spirit contained 
in the fluid will become separated ; for the 
sub-carbonate of potash abstracts from it the 
whole of the water with which it was com- 
bined ; the brandy or spirit of wine forming 
a distinct stratum, which floats upon the 
aqueous solution of the alkaline salt. If the 
experiment be made in a glass tube, from 
one half inch to two inches in diameter, and 
graduated into 100 equal parts, the per cen- 
tage of spirit, in a given quantity of wine, 
may be read off by mere inspection. In this 
manner the strength of any wine may be 



Per Centage of Alcohol* contained in 
various kinds of Wine and other fer- 
mented Liquors'f. 

Proportion of Spirit 
per cent. 

Proportion of Spirit 
per cent. 

by measure. 

by measure* 




.. 25,83 




,. 24,29 




,. 23,71 

Raisin Wine 



. 23,39 

Ditto , 



. 22,30 




. 2^40 




. 19,96 



,. 22,96 




. 19,81 




. 19,83 




. 18,79 




. 18,25 

Ditto (Sercial} 



. 19,17 




. 19,79 




. 19,75 

* Of a Specific Gravity, 825.^- 
t Philosophical Trans. 1811, p. 345; 1813, p. 87; 
Journal of Science and the Arts, No viii. p. 290. 



Lachryma Christi... 




Constantia (White) 


Ditto , 


Ditto (Red) 








Malaga (1666) 


Malmsey Madeira.. 






Red Madeira 












Cape Muschat 




Cape Madeira 
















Grape Wine 










Ditto (old iu cask). 










Alba Flora 








Hermitage (White) 


Champagne (Still).. 




Ditto (Sparkling)... 




Ditto (Red) 




Ditto (ditto) 







Red Hermitage 12,32 Mead 7,32 

Vin de Grave 13,94 Ale (Burton) 8,88 

Ditto 12,80 Ditto (Edinburgh). 6,20 

Average 13,37 Ditto (Dorchester). 5,50 

Frontignac 12,79 Average 6,87 

Cote Rotie 12,32 Brown Stout 6,80 

Gooseberry Wine... 11,84 LondonPorteraverage4,20 

Currant Wine 20,55 Do. SmaUBeer, do. 1,28 

Orange Wine average 11, 26 Brandy 53,39 

Tokay 9,88 Rum 53,68 

Elder Wine 9,87 Gin 51,60 

Cyder highest average 9,87 Scotch Whiskey 54,32 

Ditto lowest ditto... 5,21 Irish ditto 53,90 

Perry average 7,26 


BESIDES grapes, the most valuable of the 
articles of which wine is made, there are a 
considerable number of fruits from which a 
vinous liquor is obtained. Of such, we have 
in this country the gooseberry, the currant, 


the elderberry, the cherry, &c. which fer- 
ment well, and afford what are called home- 
made wines. 

They differ chiefly from foreign wines in 
containing a much larger quantity of acid. 
Dr. Macculloch* has remarked that the acid 
in home-made wines is principally the malic 
acid ; while in grape wines it is the tartaric 

The great deficiency in these wines, inde- 
pendent of the flavour, which chiefly origi- 
nates, not from the juice, but from the seeds 
and husks of the fruits, is the excess of acid, 
Which is but imperfectly concealed by the 
addition of sugar. This is owing, chiefly, as 
Dr. Macculloch remarks, to the tartaric acid 

* Macculloch on Wine. This is by far the best 
Treatise published in this country on the Manufacture 
of Home-made Wines. 

G 2 


existing in the grape juice in the state of 
super-tartrate of potash, which is in part de- 
composed during the fermentation, and the 
rest becomes gradually precipitated ; whilst 
the malic acid exists in the currant and 
gooseberry juice in the form of malate of 
potash; which salt does not appear to suffer 
a decomposition during the fermentation of 
the wine ; and, by its greater solubility, is 
retained in the wine. Hence Dr. Maccul- 
loch recommends the addition of super-tar- 
trate of potash, in the manufacture of Bri- 
tish wines. They also contain a much 
larger proportion of mucilage than wines 
made from grapes. The juice of the goose- 
berry contains some portion of the tartaric 
acid ; hence it is better suited for the pro- 
duction of what is called English Cham- 
pagne, than any other fruit of this country. 


THIS is one of the sophistications of the 
articles of food most commonly practised in 
this metropolis, where the goodness of bread 
is estimated entirely by its whiteness. It is 
therefore usual to add a certain quantity of 
alum to the dough ; this improves the look 
of the bread very much, and renders it whiter 
and firmer. Good, white, and porous bread 
may certainly be manufactured from good 
wheaten flour alone; but to produce the 
degree of whiteness rendered indispensable 
by the caprice of the consumers in London, 
it is necessary (unless the very best flour is 
employed,) that the dough should be 

bleached; and no substance has hitherto 
o 3 


been found to answer this purpose better 
than alum. 

Without this 'salt, it is impossible to make 
bread, from the kind of flour usually em- 
ployed by the London bakers, so white as 
that which is commonly sold in the metro- 

If the alum be omitted, the bread has a 
slight yellowish grey hue as may be seen 
in the instance of what is called home-made 
bread, of private families. 

The quantity of alum requisite to produce 
the required whiteness and porosity, depends 
entirely upon the genuineness of the flour, 
and the quality of the grain from which the 
flour is obtained. The mealman makes dif- 
ferent sorts of flour from the same kind of 
grain, The best flour is mostly used by the 
biscuit bakers and pastry cooks, and the in- 


ferior sorts in the making* of bread. The 
bakers' flour is very often made of the worst 
kinds of foreign damaged wheat, and other 
cereal grains mixed with them in grinding* 
the wheat into flour. In this capital, no 
fewer than six distinct kinds of wheaten 
flour are brought into market. They are 
called line flour, seconds, middlings, fine 
middlings, coarse middlings, and twenty- 
penny flour. Common garden beans, and 
pease, are also frequently ground up among 
the London bread flour. 


I have been assured by several bakers^on 
whose testimony I can rely, that the small 
profit attached to the bakers' trade, and the 
o 4 


bad quality of the flour, induce the genera- 
lity of the London bakers to use alum in the 
making 1 of their bread. 

The smallest quantity of alum that can be 
employed with effect to produce awhite,1ight, 
and porous bread, from an inferior kind of 
flour,I have my own baker's authority to state, 
is from three to four ounces to a sack of flour, 
weighing 240 pounds. The alum is either 
mixed well in the form of powder, with a 
quantity of flour previously made into a 
liquid paste with water, and then incorpo- 
rated with the dough ; or the alum is dis- 
solved in the water employed for mixing up 
the whole quantity of the flour for making 
the dough. 

Let us suppose that the baker intends to 
convert five bushels, or a sack of flour into 
loaves with the least adulteration practised. 


He pours the flour into the kneading trough, 
and sifts it through a fine wire sieve, which 
makes it lie very light, and serves to sepa- 
rate any impurities with which the flour may 
be mixed. Two ounces of alum are then 
dissolved in about a quart of boiling water, 
and the solution poured into the seasoning- 
tub. Four or five pounds of salt are like- 
wise put into the tub, and a pailful of hot-, 
water. When this mixture has cooled down 
to the temperature of about 84, three or four 
pints of yeast are added ; the whole is mixed, 
strained through the seasoning sieve, emp- 
tied into a hole in the flour, and mixed up 
with the requisite portion of it to the consis- 
tence of a thick batter. Some dry flour is 
then sprinkled over the top, and it is covered 
up with cloths. 

In this situation it is left about three 
o 5 


hours. It gradually swells and breaks 
through the dry flour scattered on its sur- 
face. An additional quantity of warm water, 
in which one ounce of alum is dissolved, is 
now added, and the dough is made up into 
a paste as before ; the whole is then covered 
up. In this situation it is left for a few 

The whole is then intimately kneaded with 
more water for upwards of an hour. The 
dough is cut into pieces with a knife, and 
penned to one side of the trough ; some dry 
flour is sprinkled over it, and it is left in 
this state for about four hours. It is then 
kneaded again for half an hour. The dough 
is now cut into pieces and weighed, in order 
to furnish the requisite quantity for each 
loaf. The loaves are left in the oven about 
two ours and a half. When taken out, they 


are carefully covered up, to prevent as much 
as possible the loss of weight. 

The following account of making a sack, 
or five bushels of flour, into bread, is taken 
from Dr. P. Markhatn's Considerations ou 
the Ingredients used in the Adulteration of 
Bread Flour and Bread, p. 21 : 

Five bushels of flour, eight ounces of 

alum*, four pounds of salt, half a gallon of 
yeast, mixed with about three gallons of 

The theory of the bleaching property of 
alum, as manifested in the panification of an 

* Whilst correcting this sheet for the press,, the prin- 
ter transmits to me the following lines : 

ec On Saturday last,, Mr. Wood, a baker, was con- 
victed before T. Evance, Esq. Union Hall, of having in 
his possession a quantity of alum for the adulteration 
of bread, and fined in the penalty of 5. and costs, 
under 55 Geo. III. c. 99." The Times, Oct. 1819, 

G 6 


inferior kind of flour, is by no means well 
understood ; and indeed it is really surpris- 
ing that the effect should be produced by so 
small a quantity of that substance ; two or 
three ounces of alum being sufficient for a 
sack of flour. 

From experiments in which I have been 
employed, with the assistance of skilful 
bakers, I am authorised to state, that with- 
out the addition of alum, it does not appear 
possible to make white, light, and porous 
bread, such as is used in this metropolis, 
unless the flour be of the very best quality. 

Another substance employed by fraudu- 
lent bakers, is subcarbonate of ammonia. 
With this salt, they realize the important 
consideration of producing light and porous 
bread, from spoiled, or what is technically 
called sour flour. This salt, which becomes 


wholly converted into a gaseous state dur- 
ing the operation of baking, causes the 
dough to swell up into air bubbles, which 
carry before them the stiff dough, and thus 
it renders the dough porous ; the salt itself 
is, at the same time, totally volatilised dur- 
ing the operation of baking. Thus not a 
vestige of carbonate of ammonia remains in 
the bread. This salt is also largely em- 
ployed by the biscuit and ginger-bread 


POTATOES are likewise largely, and per- 
haps constantly, used by fraudulent bakers, 
as a cheap ingredient, to enhance their pro- 
fit. The potatoes being boiled, are tritu- 


rated, passed through a sieve, and incorpo- 
rated with the dough by kneading. This 
adulteration does not materially injure the 
bread. The bakers assert, that the bad 
quality of the flour renders the addition of 
potatoes advantageous as well to the baker 
as to the purchaser, and that without this 
admixture in the manufacture of bread, it 
would be impossible to carry on the trade 
of a baker. But the grievance is, that the 
same price is taken for a potatoe loaf, as for 
a loaf of genuine bread, though it must cost 
the baker less. 

I have witnessed, that five bushels of flour, 
three ounces of alum, six pounds of salt, one 
bushel of potatoes boiled into a stiff paste, 
and three quarts of yeast, with the requisite 
quantity of water, produce a white, light, 
and highly palatable bread. 


Such are the artifices practised in the 
preparation of bread* ; and it must be al- 
lowed, on contrasting them with those so- 
phistications practised by manufacturers of 
other articles of food, that they are compa- 
ratively unimportant. However, some me- 
dical men have no hesitation in attributing 
many diseases incidental to children to the 
use of eating adulterated bread ; others 
again will not admit these allegations: they 
persuade themselves that the small quantity 
of alum added to the bread (perhaps, upon 
an average, from eight to ten grains to a 
quartern loaf,) is absolutely harmless. 

* There are instances of convictions on record, of 
bakers having used gypsum, chalk, and pipe clay, in 
the manufacture of bread. 


Mr. Edmund Davy, Professor of Chemis- 
try, at the Cork Institution, has communi- 
cated the following important facts to the 
public concerning the manufacture of 

" The carbonate of magnesia of the shops, 
when well mixed with flour, in the propor- 
tion of from twenty to forty grains to a 
pound of flour, materially improves it for the 
purpose of making bread. 

" Loaves made with the addition of car- 
bonate of magnesia, rise well in the oven ; 
and after being baked, the bread is light 
and spongy, has a good taste, and keeps 
well. In cases when the new flour is of an 
indifferent quality, from twenty to thirty 
grains of carbonate of magnesia to a pound 
of the flour will considerably improve the 


bread. When the flour is of the worst qua- 
lity, forty grains to a pound of flour seem 
necessary to produce the same effect. 

" As the improvement in the bread from 
new flour depends upon the carbonate of 
magnesia, it is necessary that care should be 
taken to mix it intimately with the flour, 
previous to making the dough. 

" Mr. Davy made a great number of com- 
parative experiments with other substances, 
mixed in different proportions with new 
bread flour. The fixed alkalies, both in 
their pure and carbonated state, when used 
in small quantity, to a certain extent were 
found to improve the bread made from new 
flour ; but no substance was so efficacious in 
this respect as carbonate of magnesia. 

" The greater number of his experiments 
were performed on the worst new seconds 


flour Mr. Davy could procure. He also 
made some trials on seconds and firsts of 
different quality. lu some cases the results 
were more striking and satisfactory than in 
others ; but in every instance the improve- 
ment of the bread, by carbonate of magnesia, 
was obvious. 

" Mr. Davy observes, that a pound of 
carbonate of magnesia would be sufficient 
to mix with two hundred and fifty-six 
pounds of new flour, or at the rate of thirty 
grains to the pound. And supposing a 
pound of carbonate of magnesia to cost 
half-a-crown, the additional expence w r ould 
be only half a farthing in the pound of 

" Mr. Davy conceives that not the slight- 
est danger can be apprehended from the 
use of such an innocent substance as the 


carbonate of magnesia, in such small propor- 
tions as are necessary to improve bread from 
new flour." 


POUR upon two ounces of the suspected 
bread, half a pint of boiling distilled water ; 
boil the mixture for a few minutes, and filter 
it through unsized paper. Evaporate the 
fluid to about one fourth of its original bulk, 
and let gradually fall into the clear fluid 
a solution of muriate of barytes. If a co+ 
pious white precipitate ensue, which does 
not disappear by the addition of pure nitrie 
acid, the presence of alum may be suspected. 
Bread, made without alum, produces, when 
assayed in this manner, merely a very slight 


precipitate, which originates from a minute 
portion of sulphate of magnesia contained 
in all common salt of commerce ; and bread 
made with salt freed from sulphate of mag- 
nesia, produces an infusion with water, 
which does not become disturbed by the 
barytic test. 

Other means of detecting all the consti- 
tuent parts of alum, namely, the alumine, 
sulphuric acid, and potash, so as to render 
the presence of the alum unequivocal, will 
readily suggest itself to those who are fa- 
miliar with analytical chemistry; namely: 
one of the readiest means is, to decompose 
the vegetable matter of the bread, by the 
action of chlorate of potash, in a platina 
crucible, at a red heat, and then to assay 
the residuary mass, by means of muriate 
of barytes for sulphuric acid ; by ammonia, 


for alumine ; and by muriate of platina, for 
potash*. The above method of detecting 
the presence of alum, must therefore be 
taken with some limitation. 

There is no unequivocal test for detect- 
ing in a ready manner the presence of alum 
in bread, on account of the impurity of the 
common salt used in the making of bread. 
If we could, in the ordinary way of bread 
making, employ common salt, absolutely 
free from foreign saline substances, the 
mode of detecting the presence of alum 
would be very easy. Some conjecture 
may, nevertheless, be formed of the pre- 
sence, or absence, of alum, by assaying the 

* See a Practical Treatise on the Use and Applica- 
tion of Chemical Tests, illustrated by experiments, 3d 
edition, p. 270, 231, 177, and 196. 


infusion of bread in the manner stated, 
p. 139, and comparing the assay with the 
results afforded by an infusion of home- 
made or household bread, known to be 
genuine, and actually assayed in a similar 


MILLERS judge of the goodness of bread 
corn by the quantity of bran which the 
grain produces. 

Such grains as are full and plump, that 
have a bright and shining appearance, 
without any shrivelling and shrinking in 
the covering* of the skin, are the best; for 
wrinkled grains have a greater quantity of 


skin, or bran, than such as are sound or 

Pastry-cooks and bakers judge of the 
goodness of flour in the manner in which it 
comports itself in kneading. The best kind 
of wheaten flour assumes, at the instant 
it is formed into paste by the addition 
of water,* a very gluey, ductile, and elastic 
paste, easy to be kneaded, and which may 
be elongated, flattened, and drawn in every 
direction, without breaking. 

For the following fact we are indebted to 
Mr. Hatchet : 

" Grain, which has been heated or burnt 
in the stack, may in the following man- 
ner be rendered fit for being made into 

" The wheat must be put into a vessel 
capable of holding at l^ast three times the 


quantity, and the vessel filled with boiling- 
water; the grain should then be occa- 
sionally stirred, and the hollow decayed 
grains, which float, may be removed. When 
the water has become cold, or in about half 
an hour, it is drawn off. Then rince the 
corn with cold water, and, having com- 
pletely drained it, spread it thinly on the 
floor of a kiln, and thus thoroughly dry it, 
stirring and turning it frequently during 
this part of the process.*" 

Phil. Trans, for 1817, part 1. 

^alteration of 

MALT LIQUORS, and particularly porter, 
the favourite beverage of the inhabitants 
of London, and of other large towns, is 
amongst those articles, in the manufacture 
of which the greatest frauds are frequently 

The statute prohibits the brewer from 
using any ingredients in his brewings, ex- 
cept malt and hops ; but it too often happens 
that those who suppose they are drinking a 
nutritious beverage, made of these ingre- 
dients only, are entirely deceived. The 
beverage may, in fact, be neither more nor 


less than a compound of the most delete- 
rious substances ; and it is also clear that 
all ranks of society are alike exposed to the 
nefarious fraud. The proofs of this state- 
ment will be shown hereafter*. 

The author f of a Practical Treatise on 
Brewing, which has run through eleven 
editions, after having stated the various 
ingredients for brewing porter, observes, 
" that however much they may surprise, 
" however pernicious or disagreeable they 
" may appear, he has always found them 
" requisite in the brewing of porter, and 
" he thinks they must invariably be used 
" by those who wish to continue the taste, 

* See pages 158, 171, 181. 

t Child, on Brewing Porter,, p. 7. 


" flavour, and appearance of the beer*. 
" And though several Acts of Parliament 
" have been passed to prevent porter brew- 
" ers from using many of them, yet the 
" author can affirm, from experience, he 
** could never produce the present flavoured 
" porter without them -f. The intoxicating 
" qualities of porter are to be ascribed to 
" the various drugs intermixed with it. It 
u is evident some porter is more heady than 
" other, and it arises from the grea(er or 
i4 less quantity of stupifying ingredients. 
" Malt, to produce intoxication, must be 
" used in such large quantities as would 
" very much diminish, if not totally ex- 
" elude, the brewer's profit." 

* Child, on Brewing Porter, p. 16. 
t Ibid, p. 16. 




THE practice of adulterating beer appears 
to be of early date. By an Act so long 
ago as Queen Anne, the brewers are pro- 
hibited from mixing cocculus indicus, or 
any unwholesome ingredients, in their beer, 
under severe penalties : but few instances of 
convictions under this Act are to be met with 
in the public records for nearly a century. 
To shew that they have augmented in our 
own days, we shall exhibit an abstract from 
documents laid lately before Parliament*. 

* " Minutes of the Committee of the House of Com- 
mons, to whom the petition of several inhabitant* of 


These will not only amply prove, that 
unwholesome ingredients are used by frau- 
dulent brewers, and that very deleterious 
substances are also vended both to brewers 
and publicans for adulterating beer, but 
that the ingredients mixed up in the brew- 
er's enchanting cauldron are placed above 
all competition, even with the potent charms 
of Macbeth's witches : 

" Root of hemlock, digg'd i' the dark, 

" For a charm of pow'rful trouble, 
" Like a hell-broth boil and bubble." 

London and its vicinity, complaining of the high price 
and inferior quality of beer, was referred, to examine 
the matter thereof, and to report the same, with their 
observations thereupon, to the House. Printed by 
order of the House of Commons, April 1819." 



Mr. Morris* recommends the following 
Receipt for brewing Porter : 

Cwt. Qrs. Ib. 

Malt, 25 Quarters. 

Hops. 1 2 

Cocculus Indicus Berry 6 

Xeghorn Juice 30 

Porter Extract 

Cwt. Qrs. Ibs, 

Malt, 20 Quarters. 

Hops 2 

Cocculus Indicus Berry 00 4 

Sugar .0 28 

Fabia Amara 6 

To make up a Vat of 150 Barrels* 

Use half a barrel of colouring, cwt 
of cream of tarter, \ cwt. of ground alum, 

* Morris on Brewing- Malt Liquors, p. 38, and H6. 


1 pound of salt of steel, and two barrels 
of strong finings. Mix these well together, 
and put them in a vat, rousing it thoroughly 
at the same time. Let the vat remain open 
three days ; then close it and sand it over* 

In a fortnight it will be fit for use. Your 
own good sense will inform you how, to 

The following are some of the Articles 
used by fraudulent Brewers, and recom- 
mended by Mr. Morris. 

Colouring. " I should recommend to 
every brewer to provide himself with a 
sufficient quantity, as it gives a good face 
to the beer, and enables you to gratify the 
sight of your different customers. 

Cocculus Indicus. " Cocculus Indicus is 
used as a substitute for malt and hops, and 
is a great preservative of malt liquor ; it 
H 4 


prevents second fermentation in bottled beer,, 
and consequently the bursting of the bottles 
in warm climates. Its effect is of an inebri- 
ating nature. 

" Calamus Ar omaticus is used in the brew- 
ery as a succedaneum for hops and strength, 
by slicing it thin, and boiling it a short time 
with the hops ; one pound of which is equal 
to six pounds of hops. 

" Quassia leaves so severe a bitter on the 
palate, long after the liquor is drank, that 
it requires much judgment in using it. 

" Coriander is much used by brewers, to 
give a flavour to ales. 

" Capsicum, or guinea pepper, is used in 
ales and amber. 

" Caraway Seed is put into ales, for the 
flavour ; and is used in the tun. 

" Grams of Paradise are of a warm na- 
ttire also, and are used in ales. 


** Ginger. This article, when used in the 
brewery, is always ground fine ; and made 
use of in the tun at the time of cleansing, 

" Beans tend to mellow malt liquor ; and, 
from their properties, add much to its inebri- 
ating qualities ; but they must not be used 
in too large a quantity. 

" Oyster Shells are very good to recover 
sour beer : but when used, you must leave 
the bung out. 

" Alum is generally put into the vat, as it 
gives the beer a smack of age." 

Such are the articles recommended by 
Mr. Morris. 

The fraud of imparting to porter and ale 
an intoxicating quality by narcotic sub- 
stances, appears to have flourished during 
the period of the late French war: for, if 
ii 5 


we examine the importation lists of drugs, it 
will be noticed that the quantities of coc- 
culus indicus imported in a given time prior 
to that period, will bear no comparison with 
the quantity imported in the same space of 
time during the war, although an additional 
duty was laid upon this commodity. Such 
has been the amount brought into this 
country in five years, that it far exceeds the 
quantity imported during twelve years an- 
terior to the above epoch. The price of this 
drug has risen within these ten years from 
two shillings to seven shillings the pound. 

It was at the period to which we have 
alluded, that the preparation of an extract 
of cocculus indicus first appeared, as a new 
saleable commodity* in the price-currents 
of br eivers* -drug gist s* It was at the same 
time, also, that a Mr. Jackson, of notorious 


memory, fell upon the idea of brewing beer 
from various drugs, without any malt and 
hops. This chemist did not turn brewer 
himself; but he struck out the more pro- 
fitable trade of teaching his mystery to the 
brewers for a handsome fee. From that 
time forwards, written directions, and re- 
ceipt-books for using the chemical prepa- 
rations to be substituted for malt and hops, 
were respectively sold; and many adepts 
soon afterwards appeared every where, to 
instruct brewers in the nefarious practice, 
first pointed out by Mr. Jackson. From 
that time, also, the fraternity of brewers' 
chemists took its rise. They made it their 
chief business to send travellers a!! over the 
country with lists and samples exhibiting 
the price and quality of the articles manu- 
factured by them for the use of brewers 



only. Their trade spread far and wide, but 
it was amongst the country brewers chiefly 
that they found the most customers; and 
it is amongst them, up to the present day y 
as I am assured by some of these opera- 
tors, on whose veracity I can rely, that the 
greatest quantities of unlawful ingredients 
are sold. 

The Act of Parliament* prohibits che- 
mists, grocers, and druggists, from supply- 
ing illegal ingredients to brewers under a 
heavy penalty, as is obvious from the fol- 
lowing abstract of the Act. 

" No druggist, vender of or dealer in 
" drugs, or chemist, or other person, shall 
" sell or deliver to any licensed brewer, 
" dealer in or retailer of beer, knowing him 

* 56 Geo. III. c. 2. 


" to be such, or shall sell or deliver to any 
" person on account of or in trust for any 
* such brewer, dealer or retailer, any liquor 
" called by the name of or sold as colouring, 
" from whatever material the same may be 
" made, or any material or preparation other 
" than unground brown malt for darkening 
" the colour of worts, or beer, or any liquor 
" or preparation made use of for darkening 
" the colour of worts or beer, or any mo- 
" lasses, honey, vitriol, quassia, cocculus 
" Indian, grains of paradise, Guinea pepper 
" or opium, or any extract or preparation of 
" molasses, or any article or preparation to 
" be used in worts or beer for or as a sub- 
" stitute for malt or hops ; and if any drug- 
" gist shall offend in any of these particu- 
" lars, such liquor preparation, molasses, &c. 
" shall be forfeited and may be seized by 


" any officer of Excise, and the person so 
' offending shall for each offence forfeit 
" 500." 

The following is a list of druggists and 
grocers, prosecuted by the Court of Excise, 
and convicted of supplying unlawful ingre- 
dients to brewers. 

Druggists and Grocers prosecuted and 
convicted from 1812 to 1819, for sup- 
plying illegal Ingredients to Brewers 
for adulterating Seer*, 

Messrs. Dunn and Co, druggists, for selling aduk 
terating ingredients to brewers, verdict 500/. 

Messrs. Rugg and others, druggists, for selling adul- 
terating ingredients to brewers, verdict 500/. 

* Copied from the Minutes of the Committee of the 
House of Commons, appointed for examining the price 
and quality of beer. See page 18, 29, 30, 31, 36, 43. 


Messrs. Hodgkinson and others, for selling" adulterat- 
ing ingredients to brewers, 1001. and costs. 

Messrs. Hiscocks and others, for selling adulterating 
ingredients to a brewer, 200/. and costs. 

Mr. Hornby, for selling adulterating ingredients to 
a brewer, 2001. 

Mr. Wilson, for selling adulterating ingredients to a 
brewer, 2001. 

Mr. Andrews, grocer, for selling adulterating ingre- 
dients to a brewer, 25/. and costs. 

Air. Knowles, for selling substitute for hops, costs. 

Messrs. Kernot and Alsop, for selling cocculus india, 
c. 25/. 

Messrs. Brandram and Co.* for selling various drugs, 

Mr. Moss, for selling various drugs, 300/. 

Mr. Whitcombe, Mr. Dunn, and Mr. Waller, drug- 
gists, for having liquor for darkening the colour of beer, 
hid and concealed. 

Mr. Hebberd, for having liquor for darkening the 
colour of beer, hid and concealed. 

Mr. Whitcombe, Mr. Dunn, and Mr. Waller, drug- 
gists, for making liquor for darkening the colour of 

* Not Messrs. Brandram, of Size-lane, Cannon-st. 


Mr. Lord, grocer, for selling molasses to a brewer, 
20/. and costs. 

Mr. Smith Carr, grocer, for selling molasses to a 
brewer, 20/. and costs. 

Mr. Fox, grocer, for selling molasses to a brewer, 
%bL and costs. 

Mr. Cooper, grocer, for selling molasses to a brewer, 
40/. and costs. 

Mr. Bickering, grocer, for selling molasses to a 
brewer, 40/. and costs. 

Mr. Howard, grocer, for selling molasses to a brewer, 
2l. and costs. 

Mr. Reynolds, grocer, for selling molasses to a 
brewer, costs. 

Mr. Hammond, grocer, for selling molasses to a 
brewer, 20/. and costs. 

Mr. Mackway, grocer, for selling molasses to a 
brewer, 20/. 

Mr. Renton, grocer, for selling molasses to a brewer, 
costs, and taking out a licence. 

Mr. Adam son, grocer, for selling molasses to a 
brewer, costs, and taking out a licence. 

Mr. Weaver, for selling Spanish liquorice to a 
brewer, 200/. 

Mr. Moss, for selling Spanish liquorice to a brewer. 

Mr. Braden, for selling liquorice, 20/. 

Mr, Draper, for selling molasses to a brewer, 20/. 



THE method of brewing- porter has not 
been the same at all times as it is at pre- 

At first, the only essential difference in 
the methods of brewing this liquor and that 
of other kinds of beer, was, that porter was 
brewed from brown malt only ; and this gave 
to it both the colour and flavour required. 
Of late years it has been brewed from mix- 
tures of pale and brown malt. 

These, at some establishments, are mashed 
separately, and the worts from each are af- 
terwards mixed together. The proportion of 
pale and brown malt, used for brewing por- 
ter, varies in different breweries ; some em- 
ploy nearly two parts of pale malt and one 
part of brown malt ; but each brewer ap- 


pears to have his own proportion ; which the 
intelligent manufacturer varies, according 
to the nature and qualities of the malt. 
Three pounds of hops are, upon an average, 
allowed to every barrel (thirty-six gallons) 
of porter. 

When the price of malt, on account of the 
great increase in the price of barley during 1 
the late war, was very high, the London 
brewers discovered that a larger quantity of 
wort of a given strength could be obtained 
from pale malt than from brown malt. They 
therefore increased the quantity of the 
former, and diminished that of the latter. 
This produced beer of a paler colour, and 
of a less bitter flavour. To remedy these 
disadvantages, they invented an artificial 
colouring substance, prepared by boiling- 
brown sugar till it acquired a very dark 


brown colour ; a solution of which was em- 
ployed to darken the colour of the beer. 
Some brewers made use of the infusion of 
malt instead of sugar colouring*. To impart 
to the beer a bitter taste, the fraudulent 
brewer employed quassia wood and worm- 
wood as a substitute for hops. 

But as the colouring of beer by means of 
sugar became in many instances a pretext 
for using illegal ingredients, the Legisla- 
ture, apprehensive from the mischief that 
might, and actually did, result from it, 
passed an Act prohibiting the use of burnt 
sugar in July 1817; and nothing but malt 
and hops is now allowed to enter into the 
composition of beer : even the use of isin- 
glass for clarifying beer, is contrary to 


No sooner had the beer-colouring Act 
been repealed, than other persons obtained 
a patent for effecting' the purpose of impart- 
ing an artificial colour to porter, by means 
of brown malt, specifically prepared for that 
purpose only. The beer, coloured by the 
new method, is more liable to become spoiled, 
than when coloured by the process formerly 
practised. The colouring malt does not 
contain any saccharine matter. The grain 
is by mere torrefaction converted into a 
gum-like substance, wholly soluble in water, 
which renders the beer more liable to pass 
into the acetous fermentation than the com- 
mon brown malt is capable of doing ; be- 
cause the latter, if prepared from good bar- 
ley, contains a portion of saccharine matter, 
of which the patent malt is destitute. 


But as brown malt is generally prepared 
from the worst kind of barley, and as the 
patent malt can only be made from good 
grain, it may become, on that account, an 
useful article to the brewer (at least, it gives 
colour and body to the beer) ; but it cannot 
materially economise the quantity of malt 
necessary to produce good porter. Some 
brewers of eminence in this town have as- 
sured me, that the vise of this mode of co- 
louring beer is wholly unnecessary; and 
that porter of the requisite colour may be 
brewed better without it ; hence this kind of 
malt is not used in their establishments. 
The quantity of gum-like matter which it 
contains, gives too much ferment to the 
beer, and render it liable to spoil. Repeated 
experiments, made on a large scale, have 
settled this fact, 



\ THE strength of all kinds of beer, like 
that of wine, depends on the quantity of 
spirit contained in a given bulk of the li- 

The reader need scarcely be told, that of 
no article there are more varities than of 
porter. This, no doubt, arises from the dif- 
ferent mode of manufacturing the beer, al- 
though the ingredients are the same. This 
difference is more striking in the porter 
manufactured among country brewers, than 
it is in the beer brewed by the eminent 
London porter brewers. The totality of the 
London porter exhibits but very slight dif- 
ferences, both with respect to strength or the 
quantity of spirit, and solid extractive mat- 


ter, contained in a given bulk of it. The 
spirit may be stated, upon an average, to be 
4,50 per cent, in porter retailed at the pub- 
licans : the solid matter is from twenty-one 
to twenty-three pounds per barrel of thirty- 
six gallons. The country-brewed porter is 
seldom well fermented, and seldom con- 
tains so large a quantity of spirit ; it usually 
abounds in mucilage; hence it becomes 
turbid when mixed with alcohol. Such 
beer cannot keep, without becoming sour. 
It has been matter of frequent complaint, 
that ALL the porter now brewed, is not 
what porter was formerly. This idea may 
be true, with some exceptions. My profes- 
sional occupations have, during these 
twenty-eight years, repeatedly obliged 
me to examine the strength of London por- 
ter, brewed by different brewers ; and, from 
the minutes made on that subject, I am au- 


thorized to state, that the porter now brewed 
by the eminent London brewers, is unques- 
tionably stronger than that which was 
brewed at different periods during the late 
French war. Samples of brown stout with 
which I have been obligingly favoured, 
whilst writing this Treatise, by Messrs. 
Barclay, Perkins,and Co. Messrs. Truman, 
Hanbury, and Co. Messrs. Henry Meux 
and Co. and other eminent brewers of this 
capital afforded, upon an average, 725 per 
cent. of alcohol, of 0,833 specific gravity; 
and porter, from the same houses, yielded 
upon an average 5,25 per cent, of alcohol, 
of the same specific gravity*; this beer re- 

* The average specific gravity of different samples 
of brown stout, obtained direct from the breweries of 
Messrs. Barcley, Perkins, and Co. Messrs. Truman, 
Hanbury, and Co. Messrs. Henry Meux and Co. and 
from several other eminent London brewers, amounted 
to 1,022; and the average specific gravity of porter, 
from the same breweries, 1,01 8. 


ceived from the brewers was taken from the 
same store from which the publicans are 

It is nevertheless singular to observe, that 
from fifteen samples of beer of the same 
denominations, procured from different re- 
tailers, the proportions of spirit fell conside- 
rably short of the above quantities. Sam- 
ples of brown stout, procured from the 
retailers, afforded, upon an average,* 6,50 
per cent, of alcohol; and the average 
strength of the porter was 4,50 per cent. 
Whence can this difference between the 
beer furnished by the brewer, and that re- 
tailed by the publican, arise ? We shall 
not be at a loss to answer this question, when 
we find that so many retailers of porter have 
been prosecuted and convicted for mixing 
table beer with their strong beer ; this is 


prohibited by law, as becomes obvious by 
the following words of the Act*. 

" If any common or other brewer, inn- 
keeper, victualler, or retailer of beer or ale, 
shall mix or suffer to be mixed any strong 1 
beer, ale, or worts, with table beer, worts, 
or water, in any tub or measure, he shall 
forfeit 50." The difference between strong 
and table beer, is thus settled by Parlia- 

" All beer or ale f above the price of 
eighteen shillings per barrel, exclusive of 
ale duties now payable (viz. ten shillings 
per barrel,) or that may be hereafter paya- 
ble in respect thereof, shall be deemed 
strong beer or ale ; and all beer of the price 

* 2 Geo. III. c. 11, sec. 2. 1 59 Geo. III. c. 53, sec. 25. 


of eighteen shillings the barrel or under, 
exclusive of the duty payable (viz. two 
shillings per barrel) in respect thereof, shall 
be deemed table beer within the meaning 
of this and all other Acts now in force, or that 
may hereafter be passed in relation to beer 
or ale or any duties thereon." 

Publicans prosecuted and convicted from 
1815 to 1818, for adulterating Beer with 
illegal Ingredients, andfor mixing Table 
Beer with their Strong Beer*. 

Mr. Atterbury, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, 
&c. and for mixing table beer with strong beer, 401. 

Mr. Dean, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, &c. 
and for mixing table beer with strong beer, 50/. 

* Copied from the Minutes of the Committee of the 
House of Commons, appointed for examining the price 
and quality of beer, p. 19, 29, 36, 37, 43. 



Mr. Jay, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, &c. 
and for mixing table beer with strong beer 50/. 

Mr. Atkinson, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, 
&c. and for mixing table beer with strong beer, 201. 

Mr. Langworth, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, 
&c. and for mixing table beer with strong beer, 50/. 

Mrs. Spencer, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, 
&c. and for mixing table beer with strong beer, 1 50/. 

Mr. Hogg, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, &c. 
and for mixing table beer with strong beer, 51. 

Mr. Craddock, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, 
&c. and for mixing table beer with strong beer, 1001. 

Mr. Harris, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, &c. 
and for receiving stale beer, and mixing it with strong 
beer, 42/. and costs. 

Mr. Scoons, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, 
&c. and for mixing stale beer with strong beer, verdict 

Mr. Geer and another, for using salt of steel, salt, 
molasses, &c. and for mixing strong and .table beer, 
verdict 400/. 

Mr. Coleman, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, 
&c. and for mixing strong and table beer, 33/. and costs. 

Mr. Orr, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, &c. 
and for mixing strong and table beer, 50/. 

Mr. Gardiner, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, 
&c. and for mixing strong and table beer, 10Q/. 


Mr. Morris, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, 
&c. and for mixing strong and table beer, 201. 

Mr. Harbur, for using salt of steel, salt, molasses, 
&c. and for mixing strong and table beer, 501. 

Mr. Corrie, for mixing strong beer with table beer. 

Mr. Cape, for mixing strong beer with table beer. 

Mr. Gudge, for mixing strong beer with small beer. 


WE have stated already (p. 145) that no- 
thing is allowed by law to enter into the 
composition of beer, but malt and hops. 

The substances used by fraudulent brew- 
ers for adulterating beer, are chiefly the fol- 
lowing : 

Quassia, which gives to beer a bitter taste, 
is substituted for hops ; but hops possess a 
i 3 


more agreeable aromatic flavour, and there 
is also reason to believe that they render 
beer less liable to spoil by keeping ; a pro- 
perty which does not belong to quassia. It 
requires but little discrimination to distin- 
guish very clearly the peculiar bitterness of 
quassia in adulterated porter. Vast quan- 
tities of the shavings of this wood are sold 
in 3 half-torrefied and ground state to dis- 
guise its obvious character, and to prevent 
its being recognized among the waste mate- 
rials of the brewers. Wormwood* has like- 
wise been used by fraudulent brewers. 

The adulterating of hops is prohibited by 
the Legislature f. 

* See Minutes of the Committee of the House of 
Commons for Reporting on the Price and Quality of 
1819. p. 29. 

7 Geo. II. c. 19, sec. 2- 


" If any person shall put any drug or in- 
gredient whatever into hops to alter the 
colour or scent thereof, every person so of- 
fending, convicted by the oath of one wit- 
ness before one justice of the peace for the 
county or place where the offence was com- 
mitted, shall forfeit 5 for every hundred 

Beer rendered bitter by quassia never 
keeps well, unless it be kept in a place pos- 
sessing a temperature considerably lower 
than the temperature of the surrounding at- 
mosphere : and this is not well practicable 
in large establishments. 

The use of boiling the wort of beer with 
hops, is partly to communicate a peculiar 
aromatic flavour which the hop contains, 
partly to cover the sweetness of undecom- 
posed saccharine matter, and also to separate, 
i 4 


by virtue of the gallic acid and tannin it 
contains, a portion of peculiar vegetable mu- 
cilage somewhat resembling gluten, which 
is still diffused through the beer. The com- 
pound thus produced, separates in small flakes 
like those of curdled soap ; and by these 
means the beer is rendered less liable to spoiK 
For nothing contributes more to the conver- 
sion of beer, or any other vinous fluid, into 
vinegar, than mucilage. Hence, also, all 
full-bodied and clammy ales, abounding in 
mucilage, and which are generally ill fer- 
mented, do not keep as perfect ale ought to 
do. Quassia is, therefore, unfit as a substi- 
tute for hops ; and even English hops are 
preferable to those imported from the Conti- 
nent ; for nitrate of silver and acetate of lead 
produce a more abundant precipitate from 
an infusion of English hops, that can be oh- 


tained from a like infusion by the same 
agents from foreign hops. 

One of the qualities of good porter, is, 
that it should bear a fine frothy head, as it 
is technically termed : because professed 
judges of this beverage would not pro- 
nounce the liquor excellent, although it 
possessed all other good qualities of porter, 
without this requisite. 

To impart to porter this property of froth- 
ing when poured from one vessel into ano- 
ther, or to produce what is also termed a 
cauliflower head, the mixture called beer- 
heading, composed of common green vitriol 
(sulphate of iron), alum, and salt, is added. 
This addition to the beer is generally made 
by the publicans*. It is unnecessary to ge- 

* See List of Publicans prosecuted and convicted 
for mixing table beer with strong beer, &c. p. 171. 

" Alum gives likewise a smack of age to beer, and is 
penetrating to the palate." S. Child,on Breiving,p.lS. 
i 5 


nuine beer, which of itself possesses the pro- 
perty of bearing a strong white froth, witis- 
out these additions ; and it is only in conse- 
quence of table beer being mixed with strong 
beer that the frothing property of the porter 
is lost. From experiments I have tried on 
this subject, I have reason to believe that the 
sulphate of iron, added for that purpose, 
does not possess the power ascribed to it. 
But the publicans frequently, when they 
fine a butt of beer, by means of isinglass, 
adulterate the porter at the same time with 
table beer, together with a quantity of mo- 
lasses and a small portion of extract of gen- 
tian root, to keep up the peculiar flavour of 
the porter ; and it is to the molasses chiefly, 
which gives a spissitude to the beer, that the 
frothing property must be ascribed; for, 
without it, the sulphate of iron does not pro- 
duce the property of frothing in diluted beer. 


The following lines on the application of 
Beer Heading, are copied from Morris's 
Treatise on brewing Malt Liquors, p. 108. 

Heading. " On this part of our subject it 
may be necessary to observe, that here are 
various modes of making it. Some make 
use of ground copperas and ground alum, 
in about equal proportions ; some resort to 
salt of steel, of which as much as will lie 
on a shilling is sufficient for a barrel of beer. 
But, as the duties of a brewhouse sufficiently 
employ every person engaged in it, I recom- 
mend it to be purchased of those who make 
it their business to have it ready prepared. 

" Observe, that porter should not be sent 
out without it, as it causes the head so 
much admired in that liquor, and is agree- 
able to its flavour." 

Capsicum and grains of paradise, two 
i 6 


highly acrid substances, are employed to 
give a pungent taste to weak insipid beer. 
Of late, a concentrated tincture of these ar- 
ticles, to be used for a similar purpose, and 
possessing a powerful effect, has appeared 
in the price-currents of brewers' druggists. 
Ginger root, coriander seed, and orange 
peels, are employed as flavouring substances 
chiefly by the ale brewers. 

From these statements, and the seizures 
that have been made of illegal ingredients 
at various breweries, it is obvious that the 
adulterations of beer are not imaginary. It 
will be noticed, however, that some of the 
sophistications are comparatively harmless, 
whilst others are effected by substances de- 
leterious to health. The following list exhi- 
bits some of the unlawful substances seized 
at different breweries and at chemical labo- 


Illegal Ingredients, seized from 1812 to 
1818, at various Breweries and Brewers 9 

1812, July. Mr. Nibbs. 

Multum 84lb. 

Cocculus indicus 12 

Colouring 4 Galls. 

Honey 180 Ibs. 

Hartshorn Shavings... 14 

Spanish Juice 46 

Orange Powder 17 

Ginger 56 

Penalty 300, 

1813, June 13. Mrs. Willis. 

Cocculus indicus lib. 

Spanish Juice 12 

Hartshorn Shavings... 6 

Orange Powder 1 

Penalty 200. 

* Copied from the Minutes of the Committee of the 
House of Commons, appointed for examining the price 
and! quality of beer, p. 38. 


August 3. Mr. Whiffing. 

Grains of Paradise ... 441 b . 

Quassia 10 

Liquorice 64 

Ginger 80 

Caraway Seeds 40 

Orange Powder 14 

Copperas 4 

Penalty 200. 

Nov. 25. Mrs. Hasler. 

Cocculus indicus 12lbs. 

Multum 26 

Grains of Paradise ... 12 

Spanish Juice 30 

Orange Powder 3 

Penalty 200. 

Dec. 14. Mr. Abbott. 

Copperas, &c 14lbs. 

Orange Powder ..... 2 
Penalty 500. and Crown's costs. 
Proof of using drugs at various times. 


1815, Feb. 15. Messrs. Mantell and Cook. 

Proof of mixing strong beer with table beer, and 
using colouring with other things. 

Compromised for 300. 

1817. From Mr. Stevenson, an old Servant to Dunn 
and Waller, brewers' druggists. 

Cocculus indicus Extract 6lbs. 

Multum 560 

Capsicum >... 88 

Copperas 310 

Quassia 150 

Colouring & Drugs 84 

Mixed Drugs 240 

Spanish Liquorice ... 420 
Hartshorn Shavings... 77 
Liquorice Powder ... 177 

Orange Powder 126 

Caraway Seeds 100 

Ginger , 110 

Ginger Root 176 

Condemned, not being claimed. 


July 30. Mr. Lyons. 

Capsicum lib. 

Liquorice Root Powder 2 

Coriander Seed 2 

Copperas 1 

Orange Powder 8 

Spanish Liquorice \ 

Beer C olouring 24 galls. 

Not tried (7th May, 1818.) 

Aug. 6. Mr. Gray. 

Multum 4lbs. 

Spanish Liquorice 21 

Liquorice Root Powder 113 

Ginger 116 

Honey , 11 

Penalty, ^300, and costs ; including mixing strong 
beer with table, and paying table-beer duty for strong 
beer, &c. 

Numerous other seizures of illegal sub- 
stances, made at breweries, might be ad- 
vanced, were it necessary to enlarge this 
subject to a greater extent. 



ANOTHER fraud frequently committed, 
both by brewers and publicans, (as is evi- 
dent from the Excise Report,) is the prac- 
tice of adulterating strong beer with small 
beer. This fraud is prohibited by law ; 
since both the revenue and the public suffer 
by it*, "The duty upon strong beer is tea 
shillings a barrel ; and upon table beer it 
is two shillings. The revenue suffers, be- 
cause a larger quantity of beer is sold as 

* See Mr. Marr's evidence in the Minutes of the 
House of Commons, p. 32. 


strong beer ; that is, at a price exceeding 
the price of table beer, without the strong 
beer duty being paid. In the next place, 
the brewer suffers, because the retailer gets 
table or mild beer, and retails it as strong 
beer." The following are the words of the 
Act, prohibiting the brewers mixing table 
beer with strong beer : 

" If any common brewer shall mix or suf- 
fer to be mixed any strong beer, or strong* 
worts with table beer or table worts, or 
with water in any guile or fermenting 
tun after the declaration of the quantity of 
such guile shall have been made ; or if he 
shall at any time mix or suffer to be mixed 
strong beer or strong worts with table beer 
worts or with water, in any vat, cask, tub, 
measures or utensil, not being an entered 


guile or fermented tun, he shall forfeit 

With respect to the persons who commit 
this offence, Mr. Carr*, the Solicitor of the 
Excise, observes, that " they are generally 
brewers who carry on the double trade of 
brewing both strong and table beer. It is 
almost impossible to prevent them from 
mixing one with the other ; and frauds of 
very great extent have been detected, and 
the parties punished for that offence. One 
brewer at Plymouth evaded duties to the 
amount of 32,000/ ; and other brewers, who 
brew party guiles of beer carrying on the two 
trades of ale and table beer brewers, where 

* 42 George III, c. 38, section 12. 

t See Minutes of the House of Commons, p. 32. 


the trade is a victualling brewer, which is 
different from the common brewer, he being 
a person who sells only wholesale ; the vic- 
tualling brewer being a brewer and also a 
seller by retail. 

" In the neighbourhood of London," Mr. 
Carr continues," more particularly, I speak 
from having had great experience, from the 
informations and evidence which I have re- 
ceived, that the retailers carry on a most 
extensive fraud upon the public, in pur- 
chasing stale table beer, or the bottoms of 
casks. There are a class of men who go 
about and sell such beer at table-beer 
price to public victuallers, who mix it in 
their cellars. If they receive beer from 
their brewers which is mild, they purchase 
stale beer; and if they receive stale beer, 
they purchase common table beer for that 


purpose; and many of the prosecutions are 
against retailers for that offence." The fol- 
lowing may serve in proof of this state- 

Brewers prosecuted and convicted from 
1813 to 1819, for adulterating Strong 
Beer with Table Beer*. 

Mr. Manton and another, brewers, for mixing strong 
and table beer, verdict 300/. 

Mr. Morrell and another, brewers., for mixing strong 
and table beer, 20/. and costs. 

Mr. Jones and another, brewers, for mixing strong 
and table beer, verdict 125/. 

Mr. Stroad, brewer, for mixing strong and table 
beer, 200/. and costs. 

Mr. Cobbett, brewer, for mixing strong and table 
beer, 100?. and costs. 

Mr. Withers, brewer, for mixing strong and table 
beer, 7o/. and costs. 

* Copied from the Minutes of the Committee of the 
House of Commons, appointed for examining the price 
and quality of Beer, 1819, p. 29, 36, 43. 


Mr. Cowel, brewer, for mixing table beer with 
strong 1 , 50/. and costs. 

Mr. Mitchell, brewer, for mixing table beer with 
strong, absconded. 

Messrs. Lloyd and another, brewers, for mixing 
table beer with strong, 25/. and costs. 

Messrs. Edmunds and another, brewers,? for mixing 
table beer with strong, for a long period, verdict 600Z. 

Mr. Hoffman, brewer, for mixing strong and table 
beer, and using molasses, 130/. and costs. 

Mr. Langworth, brewer, for mixing strong with 
stale table beer, 10/. and costs. 

Mrs. Spencer, brewer, for mixing strong with stale 
table beer, verdict 150/. 

Messrs. Smith and others, brewers, for mixing strong 
and table beer. 

Mr. George, brewer, for mixing strong and table 
beer, verdict 200/. 

Mr. Row, brewer, for mixing strong and table 
beer, verdict 400/. 

Messrs. Drew, jun. and another, for mixing strong 
beer with table, 50/. and costs. 

Mr. Cape, brewer, for mixing strong and table beer, 
250Z. and costs. 

Messrs. Williams and another, brewers, for mixing 
strong and table beer, verdict 200/. 



IT is necessary to state, that every pub- 
lican has two sorts of beer sent to him from 
the brewer ; the one is called mild, which 
is beer sent out fresh as it is brewed ; 
the other is called old ; that is, such as is 
brewed on purpose for keeping, and which 
has been kept in store a twelve-month or 
eighteen months. The origin of the beer 
called entire, is thus related by the editor 
of the Picture of London: "Before the 
year 1730, the malt liquors in general use 
in London were ale beer and two-penny; 
and it was customary to call for a pint, or 
tankard, of half-and-half, i. e. half of ale 
and half of beer, half of ale and half of 


t\vo-penny. In course of time it also be- 
came the practice to call for a pint or tankard 
of three-threads, meaning a third of ale, 
beer, and two-penny ; and thus the publican 
had the trouble to go to three casks, and 
turn three cocks, for a pint of liquor. To 
avoid this inconvenience and waste, a brewer 
the name of Harwood conceived the idea 
of making a liquor, which should partake 
of the same united flavours of ale, beer, and 
two-penny ; he did so, and succeeded, call- 
ing it entire, OY entire butt, meaning that it 
was drawn entirely from one cask or butt ; 
and as it was a very hearty and nourishing* 
liquor, and supposed to be very suitable for 
porters and other working people, it obtained 
the name of porter*" The system is now 
altered, and porter is very generally com- 
pounded of two kinds, or rather the same 


liquor in two different states, the due ad- 
mixture of which is palatable, though nei- 
ther is good alone. One is mild porter, and 
the other stale porter ; the former is that 
which has a slightly bitter flavour; the latter 
has been kept longer. This mixture the 
publican adapts to the palates of his several 
customers, and effects the mixture very 
readily, by means of a machine, containing 
small pumps worked by handles. In these 
are four pumps, but only three spouts, be- 
cause two of the pumps throw out at the 
same spout : one of these two pumps draws 
the mild, and the other the stale porter, from 
the casks down in the cellar ; and the pub- 
lican, by dexterously changing his hold 
works either pump, and draws both kinds of 
beer at the same spout. An indifferent ob- 
server supposes, that since it all comes from 


one spout, it is entire butt beer, as the pub- 
lican professes over his door, and which has 
been decided by vulgar prejudice to be 
only good porter, though the difference 
is not easily distinguished. I have been 
informed by several eminent brewers, that, 
of late, a far greater quantity is consumed 
of mild than of stale beer. 


THE entire beer of the modern brewer, ac- 
cording to the statement of C. Barclay*, 
Esq. consists of some beer brewed ex- 
pressly for the purpose of keeping : it like- 
wise contains a portion of returns from pub- 

* See the Parliamentary Minutes* p. 94>. 


I leans ; a portion of beer from the bottoms 
of vats ; the beer that is drawn of from the 
pipes, which convey the beer from one vat 
to another, and from one part of the pre- 
mises to another. This beer is collected 
and put into vats. Mr. Barclay also states 
that it contains a certain portion of brown 
stout, which is twenty shillings a barrel 
dearer than common beer ; and some bot- 
tling beer which is ten shillings a barrel 
dearer* ; and that all these beers, united, 
are put into vats, and that it depends upon 
various circumstances, how long they may 
remain in those vats before they become per- 
fectly bright. When bright, this beer ig 

* Mr. Barclay has not specified the relative propor- 
tions of brown stout and of bottling beer, which are 
introduced at such an augmentation of expence. 



sent out to the publicans, for their entire 
beer, and there is sometimes a small quan- 
tity of mild beer mixed with it." 

The present entire beer, therefore, is a 
very heterogeneous mixture, composed of 
all the waste and spoiled beer of the pub* 
licans the bottoms of butts the leavings 
of the pots the drippings of the machines 
for drawing the beer the remnants of beer 
that lay in the leaden pipes of the brewery, 
with a portion of brown stout, bottling beer, 
and mild beer. 


THE old or entire beer we have examined, 
as obtained from Messrs. Barclay's, and 


other eminent London brewers, is unques- 
tionably a good compound ; but it does no 
longer appear to be necessary, among frau- 
dulent brewers, to brew beer on purpose 
for keeping, or to keep it twelve or eighteen 
months. A more easy, expeditious, and 
economical method has been discovered to 
convert any sort of beer into entire beer, 
merely by the admixture of a portion of 
sulphuric acid. An imitation of the age of 
eighteen months is thus produced in an in- 
stant. This process is technically called to 
bring beer forward, or to make it hard. 

The practice is a bad one. The genuine, 
old, or entire beer, of the honest brewer, is 
quite a different compound ; it has a rich, 
generous, fullrbodied taste, without being 
acid, and a vinous odour: but it may, per- 
haps, not be generally known that this kind 



of beer always affords a less proportion of 
alcohol than is produced from mild beer. 
The practice of bringing beer forward, it 
is to be understood, is resorted to only by 
fraudulent brewers*. 

If, on the contrary, the brewer has too 
large a stock of old beer on his hands, 
recourse is had to an opposite practice 
of converting stale, half-spoiled, or sour 
beer, into mild beer, by the simple ad>- 
mixture of an alkali, or an alkaline earth. 
Oyster-shell powder and subcarbonate of 
potash, or soda, are usually employed for 
that purpose. These substances neutralise 
the excess of acid, and render sour beer 
somewhat palatable. By this process the 
beer becomes very liable to spoil. 

* Mr. Child, in Ms Treatise on Brewing, p. 23, 
directs, to make neiv faer older, use oil of vitriol. 


It is the worst expedient that the brewer 
can practise : the beer thus rendered mild, 
soon loses its vinous taste; it becomes va- 
pid; and speedily assumes a muddy grey 
colour, and an exceedingly disagreeable 

These sophistications may be considered, 
at first, as minor crimes practised by fraudu- 
lent brewers, when compared with the me- 
thods employed by them for rendering beer 
noxious to health by substances absolutely 


To increase the intoxicating quality of 
beer, the deleterious vegetable substance, 



called cocculus indicus, and the extract of 
thifc poisonous berry, technically called 
black extract, or, by some, hard multum, 
are employed. Opium, tobacco, nux vomica, 
and extract of poppies, have also been 

This fraud constitutes by far the most 
censurable offence committed by unprinci- 
pled brewers; and it is a lamentable re- 
flection to behold so great a number of 
brewers prosecufed and convicted of this 
crime ; nor is it less deplorable to find the 
names of drug-gists, eminent in trade, im- 
plicated in the fraud, by selling the unlaw- 
ful ingredients to brewers for fraudulent 


prosecuted and convicted from 
1813 to 1819,. ybr receiving and using 
illegal Ingredients in their Brewings*. 

Mr. Gardner, brewer, for using adulterating ingre- 
dients, 100/., judgment by default. 

Messrs. Webb and another, brewers, for using 
adulterating ingredients, and mixing strong and table 
beer, verdict 500^. 

Mr. Wyatt, brewer, . for using adulterating ingre- 
dients, verdict 40 O/. 

Mr. Harbart, retailer, for receiving adulterating 
ingredients, verdict 150/. 

Messrs. Blake and others, brewers, for using adul- 
terating ingredients, and mixing strong and table beer, 
verdict 250k 

Mr. Sneed, for receiving adulterating ingredients, 
25/. and costs. 

Messrs. Rewell and another, brewers, ditto, verdict 

* Copied from the Minutes of the Committee of the 
House of Commons appointed for examining the price 
and quality of beer, p. 29, 36. 



Messrs. Swain and another, brewers, for using adul- 
terating ingredients, verdict 200/. 

Mr. Ing, brewer, ditto, stayed on defendant's death. 

Mr. Hall, ditto, for receiving adulterating ingre- 
dients^ 5/. and costs. 

Mr. Webb, retailer, for vising adulterating ingre- 

Messrs. Fogg and another, brewers, for receiving 
and using adulterating ingredients. 

Mr. Gray, brewer, for using adulterating ingre- 
dients, 300/. and costs. 

Mr. Bowman, for using liquid in bladder, supposed 
to be extract of cocculus, 100/. 

Mr. Bowman, brewer, for ditto, 100Z. and costs. 

Mr. Stephens, brewer, for ditto, verdict 50/. 

Messrs. Rogers and another, brewers, for ditto, 220 /, 
and costs. 

Mr. Moore, brewer, for using colouring, 300/. and 

Mr. Morris, for using adulterating ingredients. 

Messrs. Webb and Ball, for using ginger, Guinea 
pepper, and brown powder (name unknown), 1st. 
100/. 2nd. 500/. 

Mr. Clarke, for using molasses, 150Z. 

Messrs. Kewell and Burrows, for using cocculus 
india, multum, &c. 100/. 

Messrs. Allatson and Abraham, for using eocculus 
india, multum, and porter flavour, 630/. 


Messrs. Swain and Sewell, for using cocculus india, 
Guinea opium. &c. 200/. 

Mr. Ing, for using cocculus india, hard colouring, 
and honey, dead. 

Mr. Dean, for using molasses, 50/. 

Mr. Cowell, for using Spanish liquorice, and mixing 
table beer *vith strong beer, 50/^ 

Mr. Mitchell, for using cocculus india, vitriol, and 
Guinea pepper, left the country. 

Messrs. Lloyd and Man, for using extract of coc- 
culus, 251. 

Mr. Gray, for using ginger, hartshorn shavings, 
and molasses, 300/. 

Mr. Hoffman, for using molasses, Spanish juice, 
and mixing table with strong beer, ISO/. 

Messrs. Rogers and Boon, for using extract of coc- 
culus, multum, porter flavour, &c. 220/. 

Mr. Betteley, for using wormwood, coriander seed, 
and Spanish juice, 200/. 

Mr. Lane, brewer, for using wormwood instead of 
hops, 5/. and costs. 

That a minute portion of an unwholesome 
ingredient, daily taken in beer, cannot fail 
to be productive of mischief, admits of no 
doubt ; and there is reason to believe that 



a small quantity of a narcotic substance (and 
cocculus indicus is a powerful narcotic*), 
daily taken into the stomach, together with 
an intoxicating liquor, is highly more effi- 
cacious than it would be without the liquor. 
The effect may be gradual; and a strong 
constitution, especially if it be assisted with 
constant and hard labour, may counteract 
the destructive consequences perhaps for 
many years ; but it never fails to shew its 
baneful effects at last. Independent of this, 
it is a well-established fact, that porter 
drinkers are very liable to apoplexy and 
palsy, without taking this narcotic poison. 

* The deleterious effect of Cocculus Indicus (the 
fruit of the memispermum cocculus} is owing to a pe- 
culiar bitter principle contained in it; which, when, 
swallowed in minute quantities, intoxicates and acts as 
poison. It may be obtained from cocculus indicus ber- 
ries in a detached state : chemists call it picrotoxin^ 
from 7r*x/?ofc bitter ; and TO&KOV, poison. 


If we judge from the preceding lists of 
prosecutions and convictions furnished by 
the Solicitor of the Excise*, it will be evident 
that many wholesale brewers, as well as 
retail dealers, stand very conspicuous among 
those offenders. But the reader will like- 
wise notice, that there are no convictions, 
in any instance, against either of the eleven 
great London porter brewersf for any illegal 

It has been asserted, that it is more dif- 
ficult J for the officers of the Excise to detect 

* See Minutes of the House of Commons, p. 28, 36. 

t Messrs. Barclay, Perkins, and Co. Truman, Han- 
bury and Co. Reid arid Co. Whitbread and Co. 
Combe, Delafield, and Co. Henry Meux and Co. 
Calvert and Co. Goodwin and Co. Elliot and Co.-<- 
Taylor and Co. Cox, and Camble and Co. 

See the Minutes, before quoted, p. 32* 

t Ibid. p. 22. 


fraudulent practices in large breweries than 
in small ones; this may be true to a certain 
extent: but what eminent London porter 
brewer would stake his reputation on the 
chance of so paltry a gain, in which he 
would inevitably be at the mercy of his own 
man? The eleven great brewers of this 
metropolis are persons of such high respecta- 
bility, that there is no ground for the slight- 
est suspicion that they would attempt any 
illegal practices, which they were aware 
could not possibly escape detection in their 
extensive establishments. And let it be 
remembered, that none of them have been 
detected in any unlawful practice* in the 
processes of their manufacture, or in the 
adulteration of their beer. 

* Minutes of the House of Commons, p. 32. 



THE detection of the adulteration of beer 
with deleterious vegetable substances is 
beyond the reach of chemical analysis. 
The presence of sulphate of iron may 
be detected by evaporating the beer to 
perfect dryness, and burning away the ve- 
getable matter obtained, by the action of 
chlorate of potash, in a red-hot crucible. 
The sulphate of iron will be left behind 
among the residue in the crucible, which, 
when dissolved in water, may be assayed, 
for the constituent parts of the salt, namely, 
iron and sulphuric acid : for the former, by 
tincture of galls, ammonia, and prussiate of 


potash ; and for the latter, by muriate of 

Beer, which has been rendered fraudu- 
lently hard or stale, by the admixture of 
sulphuric acid, affords a white precipitate 
(sulphate of barytes), by dropping into it a 
solution of acetate or muriate of barytes; 
and this precipitate, when collected by fil- 
tering the mass, and after having been dried, 
and heated red-hot for a few minutes in a 
platina crucible, does not disappear by the 
addition of nitric or muriatic acid. Ge- 
nuine old beer may produce a precipitate ; 
but the precipitate which it affords, after 
having been made red-hot in a platina cru- 
cible, instantly becomes re-dissolved with 

* See a Treatise on the Use and Application of Che- 
mical Tests, 3d edition ; Tests for Sulphuric Acid^ &c<. 


effervescence by pouring on it some pure 
nitric or muriatic acid ; in that case the pre- 
cipitate is malate (not sulphate) ofbarytes, 
and is owing to a portion of malic acid 
having been formed in the beer. 

But with regard to the vegetable mate- 
rials deleterious to health, it is extremely 
difficult, in any instance, to detect them by 
chemical agencies ; and in most cases it is 
quite impossible, as in that of coeculus in- 
dicus in beer. 


TAKE any quantity of the beer, put it into 
a glass retort, furnished with a receiver, 


and distil, with a gentle heat, as long as any 
spirit passes over into the receiver ; which 
may be known by heating from time to time 
a small quantity of the obtained fluid in a 
tea-spoon over a candle, and bringing into 
contact with the vapour of it, the flame of 
a piece of paper. If the vapour of the dis- 
tilled fluid catches fire, the distillation must 
be continued until the vapour ceases to be 
set on fire by the contact of a flaming body* 
To the distilled liquid thus obtained, which 
is the spirit of the beer, combined with 
water, add, in small quantities at a time, 
pure subcarbonate of potash (previously 
freed from water by having been exposed 
to a red heat), till the last portion of this salt 
added, remahis iiddissolved in the fluid. 
The spirit will thus become separated from 
the water, because the subcarbonate of pot- 


ash abstracts from it the whole of the water 
which it contained; and this combination 
sinks to the bottom, and the spirit alone 
floats on the top. If this experiment be 
made in a glass tube, about half or three- 
quarters of an inch in diameter, and gra- 
duated into 50 or 100 equal parts, the rela- 
tive per centage of spirit in a given quantity 
of beer may be seen by mere inspection. 

Quantity of Alcohol contained in Porter, 
Ale, and other kinds of Malt Liquors*. 

One hundred parts, by Measure, Parts of Alcohol^ 'by 

contained Measure. 

Ale, home-brewed 8,30 

Ale, Burton, three samples -. 6,25 

* Repository of Arts, No. 2, p. 74. 1316. 


One hundred parts, by Measure, Parts of Alcohol, 

contained by Measure. 

Ale, Burton* 8,88 

i Ale, Edinburgh* 6,20 

Ale, Dorchester* , 5,50 

Ale, common London-brewed^ six samples.... 5,82 

Ale, Scotch, three samples ..... ....5,75 

Porter, London, eight samples 4,00 

Ditto, Dittot 4,20 

Ditto, Dittot 4,45 

Ditto, Ditto, bottled V& 

Brown Stout, 4 samples.... 5 

Ditto, Dittot 6,80 

Small Beer, six samples 0,75 

Ditto, DittoJ 1,28 

* Copied from Professor Branded Paper in the Phi- 
losophical Transactions, 1811, p. 345. 

t Result of our own Experiments, see p. 16D, 
$ Professor Brande's Experiments. 


f CHINA and PORTO, now farewell; 
** Let others buy what you've to sell. 

" Your Port, and your Bohea ; 
" For we've our native Sloe divine, 
" Whose fruit yields all our Porto Wine, 

" Whose leaves make all our Tea." 

Literary Journal, vol. i. p. 14?. 

THE heavy duties payable to Government 
upon tea, hold out a strong- temptation to 
those who scruple not to enrich themselves 
by fraud, although at the expence of the 
health, and even the lives of the community. 

The application of leaves poisonous to 
health for the purpose of imitating tea, is not 


a new invention, detected for the first time 
within these few years : as is obvious from 
the Acts of Parliament passed at differ- 
ent periods to prevent and punish the of- 
fence. The first legislative enactment on 
the subject is in 2d. Geo. I. cap. 30, sec. 4, 
whereby it is declared " That the dealer in 
tea, or manufacturer or dyer thereof, who 
shall counterfeit or adulterate tea, or shall 
alter, fabricate, or manufacture it with terra 
japonic a, or with any other drug or drugs 
whatsoever, or shall mix with tea any leaves 
other than leaves of tea, or other ingredients 
whatsoever, shall forfeit the sum of one 
hundred pounds." 

The 4th Geo. II. cap. 14, sec. 11, recites, 
" That several persons do frequently dye, 
fabricate, or manufacture very great quanti- 


ties of sloe-leaves, and the leaves of tea that 
have been before used, or the leaves of other 
trees, shrubs, or plants, in imitation of tea, 
and do likewise mix, colour, stain, and dye 
such leaves with terra japonica, logwood, 
and other ingredients, and do sell and vend 
the same as true and real tea, to the preju- 
dice of the health of his Majesty's subjects, 
the diminution of the revenue, and to the 
ruin of the fair trader." The Act then de- 
clares, that the dealer in or seller of such 
" sophisticated" teas, shall forfeit the sum 
of ten pounds for every pound weight. 

The latest statute on this subject is 17th 
Geo. III. cap. 29, which states, that this 
trade had increased to a very great degree, 
and by the same Act, the seller or manufac- 
turer of such tea is to forfeit five pounds 
per pound weight of tea; or, upon non pay- 


ment of that sum, be committed to prison 
for any time not exceeding twelve months; 
and, if the party so selling is a tea-dealer, 
he is subject to the provisions of the Act 
of Geo. II. and the penalty is ten pounds 
sterling, per pound weight. 

The extent to which this most iniquitous 
traffic has been carried, appears to have 
been as great formerly as now, and there- 
fore it is necessary for the public to be al- 
ways on their guard, and not to suppose that 
the late convictions will deter others from 
continuing the practice. In 1778 there was 
a printed circular, signed by the headsman 
and secretary of a company of grocers in 
Norwich, stating, that they had been shown 
a small quantity of green tea, one-fourth 
part of which was avowedly sloe-leaves, 
yet so well manufactured as almost to pre- 


vent detection ; and there is another coun- 
terfeit of hyson tea, which is a strong decep- 
tion. So much for the closeness of the imi- 

Of the extent to which this illicit traffic of 
defrauding the revenue was carried, we have 
very satisfactory evidence. In a report of 
the Committee of the House of Commons, 
dated December 24, 1783, wherein it is 
stated, that " the quantity of fictitious tea, 
which is annually manufactured from sloe 
and ash-tree leaves, in different parts of 
England, to be mixed with genuine teas, is 
computed at more than FOUR MILLIONS 
OF POUNDS:" and this too at a time when 
the whole quantity of genuine teas sold by 
the East India Company did not amount to 
more than six millions of pounds annually. 

In Scotland, and in Ireland, the fraud of 


counterfeiting tea* has been carried on to an 
equal extent, and with greater ingenuity ; in 
the latter country, the penalties imposed for 
this offence, have, during a few months, 
amounted to more than 15,000 ! 

In the defence set up by some fraudulent 
grocers convicted of adulterating tea, it is 
stated that the spurious leaves made use of 
were perfectly harmless ; and that they were 
only mixed with tea to cheapen it to the 
lower classes of the community, who could 
not afford to pay the high price at which 
genuine tea was sold. But sloe-leaves are 
rendered poisonous by the process they un- 
dergo in being manufactured as a substitute 
for tea. We have the authority of the most 
eminent botanist of his day, to prove this 

* The History of the Tea Plant, p. 4,9. 


statement. The following is from the twelfth 
volume of English Botany, page 842; by 
Sir James Smith, M.D. President of the 
Linnoean Society. 

" The recent fruit of the sloe* is one of 
the many articles used to adulterate Port 
wine in England. The dried leaves are said 
to be a substitute for tea ; and are, perhaps, 
often mixed with it in this country. They 
may be one cause of its proving sometimes 
pernicious ; for the green parts of the plumf 
and cherry tribe are highly poisonous ; and 
it is fortunate if they act merely as a purga- 

* Prunos Spinosa, sloe or blackthorn, 
t The genus, Primus, or plum, includes the sloe, 
plum, cherry, peach, bay, laurel, &c. 

L 2 


It is not to be expected that the recent 
convictions will suppress a crime which has 
existed for a century, and to the committal 
of which the temptation is stronger than 
ever; while the duties remain unrepealed, 
the opinion may be fairly hazarded, that im- 
position will still continue to be practised 
on the public. This opinion must be 
strengthened when it is stated that a profit 
of from 300 to 600 per cent, can be ob- 
tained by this species of fraud ; and though 
some of our punishments are represented to 
be too severe, yet there are many more 
much too mild, and wholly inadequate to 
the purpose of deterring offenders from a 
repetition of the crime. It is probable, that 
not a single individual, of those lately fined, 
will desist from his nefarious practices ; the 
profits of which have long since enabled him 


to meet the trivial loss which attends a 
conviction, and will speedily reimburse 
him the penalty in which he has been 

The late detections that have been made 
respecting the illicit establishments for the 
manufacture of imitation tea leaves, arrested, 
not long ago, the attention of the public ; 
and the parties by whom these manufacto- 
ries were conducted, together with the nu- 
merous venders of the factitious tea, did not 
escape the hand of justice. In proof of this 
statement, it is only necessary to consult the 
London newspapers (the Times and Courier) 
from March to July 1818; which show to 
what extent this nefarious traffic has been 
carried on in this metropolis ; and they re- 
port the prosecutions and convictions of 
numerous individuals who have been guilty 
L 3 


of the fraud. The following are some of 
those prosecutions and convictions. 

HATTON GARDEN*. On Saturday an in- 
formation came to be heard at this office, 
before Thomas Leach, Esq. the sitting- ma- 
gistrate, against Edmund Rhodes, charged 
with having, on the 12th of August last, 
dyed, fabricated, and manufactured, divers 
large quantities, viz. one hundred weight of 
sloe leaves, one hundred weight of ash 
leaves, oiie hundred weight of elder leaves, 
and one hundred weight of the leaves of a 
certain other tree, in imitation of tea, con- 
trary to the statute of the 17th of Geo. Ill, 
also, 2 Geo. I. c. 30, sec. 5 ; and 4 Geo. II. 
c. 14, sec. 11. whereby the said Edmund 
Rhodes had, for every pound of such leaves 
so manufactured, forfeited the sum of 5/. 

* Courier, Jime 22, 1818, 


making the total of the penalties amount to 
2,0007. The second count in the informa- 
tion charged the said Rhodes with having 
in his possession the above quantity of leaves, 
under the like penalty of 2,000/. The third 
count charged him with having, on the said 
12th of August last, in his possession, divers 
quantities, exceeding six pounds weight; of 
each respective kind of leaves ; viz. fifty 
pounds weight of green sloe leaves, fifty 
pounds weight of green leaves of ash, fifty 
pounds weight of green leaves of elder, and 
fifty pounds weight of the green leaves of a 
certain other tree ; not having proved that 
such leaves were gathered with the consent 
of the owners of the trees and shrubs from 
which they were taken, and that such leaves 
were gathered for some other use, and not 
for the purpose of manufacturing the same 
L 4 


in imitation of tea; whereby he had forfeited 
for each pound weight, the sum of 5/. 
amounting in the whole to 1,000/,; and, in 
default of payment, in each case, subjected 
himself to be committed to the House of 
Correction for not more than twelve months, 
nor less than six months* 

Mr. Denton, who appeared for the defen- 
dant, who was absent, said, that he was a 
very poor man, with a family of five chil- 
dren, and was only the servant of the real 
manufacturer, and an ignorant man from the 
country, put into the premises to carry on 
the business, without knowing what the 
leaves were intended for. By direction of 
Mr. Mayo, who conducted the prosecution, 
several barrels and bags, filled with the imi- 
tation tea, were then brought into the office, 
and a sample from each handed round. To 


the eye they seemed a good imitation of 

The defendant was convicted in the pe- 
nalty of 500 on the second count. 

The Attorney-General against Palmer. 
(The Times, May 18, 1818.) This was an 
action by the Attorney-General against the 
defendant Palmer, charging him with hav- 
ing in his possession a quantity of sloe- 
leaves and white-thorn leaves, fabricated into 
an imitation of tea. 

Mr. Dauncey stated the case to the Jury, 
and observed that the defendant, Mr. Palmer, 
was a grocer. It would-appear that a regu- 
lar manufactory was established in Gold- 
stone-street. The parties by whom the 
manufactory was conducted, was a person 
of the name of Proctor, and another person 
named J. Malins. They engaged others to 
L 5 


furnish them with leaves. The leaves, in 
order to be converted into an article resem- 
bling black tea, were first boiled, then 
baked upon an iron plate; and, when dry, 
rubbed with the hand, to produce that curl 
which the genuine tea had : the colour, which 
was yet to be given to it, was produced by 
logwood. The green tea was manufactured 
in a manner more destructive to the consti- 
tution of those by whom it was drank. The 
leaves, being pressed and dried, were laid 
upon sheets of copper, where they received 
their colour from an article known by the 
name of Dutch pink. The article used in 
producing the appearance of the fine green 
bloom, observable on the China tea, was, 
however, decidedly a dead poison ! He al- 
luded to verdigrise, which was added to 
complete the operation. This was the case 


which he had to bring before the jury; and 
hence it would appear, that, at the moment 
they were supposing they were drinking a 
pleasant and nutritious beverage, they were, 
in fact, in all probability, drinking the pro* 
duce of the hedges round the metropolis, 
prepared for the purposes of deception in the 
most noxious manner. 

T. Jones deposed, that he knew Proctor, 
and was employed by him at the latter end 
of April, 1817, to gather black and white 
thorn leaves. Sloe leaves were the black 
thorn. Witness also knew John Malins, the 
son of William Malins, a coffee-roaster; he 
did not at first know the purpose for which 
the leaves were gathered, but afterwards 
learnt they were to make imitation tea. 
Witness did not gather more than one hun- 
dred and a half weight of these leaves ; but 



he employed another person, of the name of 
Bagster, to gather them. He had two- 
pence per pound for them. They were first 
boiled, and the water squeezed from them 
in a press. They were afterwards placed 
over a slow fire upon sheets of copper to 
dry ; while on the copper they were rubbed 
with the hand to curl them. At the time of 
boiling there was a little verdiyrise put into 
the water (this applied to green tea only). 
After the leaves were dried, they were 
sifted, to separate the thorns and stalks. 
More verdigrise and some Dutch pink were 
then added . The verdigrise gave the leaves 
that green bloom observable on genuine 

The black tea went through a similar 
course as the green, except the application 
of Dutch pink: a little verdigrise was put in 


the boiling-, and to this was added a small 
quantity of logwood to dye it, and thus the 
manufacture was complete. 

John Bagster proved that he had been 
employed by Malins and Proctor to gather 
sloe and white-thorn leaves : they were taken 
to Jones's house, and from thence to Malin's 
coffee-roasting premises* witness received 
two-pence per pound for them; he saw the 
manufacturing going on, but did not know 
much about it: witness saw the leaves on 
sheets of copper, in Goldstone-street. 

This was the case for the Crown. Ver- 
dict for the Crown, 840. 


List of Grocers prosecuted and convicted in 
the year 1818, for adulterating Tea. 

Mr. Rhodes the defendant was convicted in 
the penalty of 600. 

Mr. Palmer the defendant was convicted in 
the penalty of 840. 

Mr. Prentice the defendant submitted to a 
verdict for the Crown. 

Mr. Holmes the defendant submitted to a 
verdict for the Crown. 

Mr. Orkney verdict for the Crown. 

Mr. Grey verdict for the Crown Penalties 

Messrs. Gilbert and Powel verdict for the 
Crown Penalties 140. 

Mr. Clarke verdict for the Crown. 

Mr. Horner verdict for the Crown Penal- 
ties 210. 

Mr. Dowling verdict for the Crown. Penal- 
ties 70. 

Mr. Bellis verdict for the Crown Penalties 




THE adulterations of tea may be evinced 
by comparing the botanical characters of the 
leaves of the two respective trees, arid by 
submitting- them to the action of a few che- 
mical tests. 

The shape of the tea-Jeaf is slender and 
narrow, as shown in this sketch, the edges 

arc deeply serrated, and the end or extre- 
mity is acutely pointed. The texture of the 


leaf is very delicate, its surface smooth and 
glossy, and its colour is a lively pale green. 
The sloe-leaf (and also the white-thorn 
leaf,) as shewn in this sketch, is more 
rounded, and the leaf is obtusely pointed. 
The serratures or jags on the edges are not 

so deep, the surface of the leaf is more un- 
even, the texture not so delicate, and the 
colour is a dark olive green. 

These characters of course can be ob- 
served only after the dried leaves have been 
suffered to macerate in water for about 
twenty-four hours. 

The leaves of some sorts of tea may differ 
in size, but the shape is the same in all of 


them ; because all the different kinds of tea 
imported from China are the produce of one 
species of plant, and the difference between 
the green and souchong, or black tea, de- 
pends chiefly upon the climate, soil, culture, 
age, and mode of drying the leaves. 

Our ladies are our tea-makers ; let them 
study the leaf as well as the liquor ; let them 
become familiar with both vegetables, with 
their forms, colours, flavours, and scents; let 
us drink our tea upon the responsibility of 
our wives, daughters, and sisters, and not 
upon that of our grocers. Let every female 
distinguish tea-leaves from sloe-leaves, as 
well as if she had served an apprenticeship 
in the ware-house in Leadenhall-street. 
Let them wet and spread out the leaves 
which come from their grocers, and let 
them be compared with our figures. 


The examination of twenty-seven sam- 
ples of imitation tea of different qualities, 
from the most costly, to the most common, 
which it fell to my lot to undertake, induces 
me to point out the following chemical marks 
of sophistications, as the most simple and 
expeditious. Spurious black tea, slightly 
moistened, when rubbed on a sheet of white 
paper, immediately produces ablueish-black 
stain; and speedily affords, when thrown 
into cold water, a blueish black tincture, 
which instantly becomes reddened by letting 
fall into it a drop or two of sulphuric acid. 

Two ounces of the suspected leaves should 
be infused in half-a-pint of cold, soft water, 
and suffered to stand for about three hours. 
Genuine tea produces an amber-coloured in- 
fusion, which does not become reddened by 
sulphuric acid. 


All the samples of spurious green tea 
(nineteen in number) which I have examined, 
were coloured with carbonate of copper (a 
poisonous substance), and not by means of 
verdigrise or copperas*. The latter sub- 
stances would instantly turn the tea black ; 
because both these metallic salts being 
soluble in water, are acted on by the 
astringent matter of the leaves, whether ge- 
nuine or spurious, and convert the infusion 

into ink. 

Tea, rendered poisonous by carbonate of 

copper, speedily imparts to liquid ammonia 
a fine sapphire blue tinge. It is only ne- 

* Mr. Twining, an eminent tea-merchant, asserts, that 
" the leaves of spurious tea are boiled in a copper,, with 
copperas and sheep's dung." See Encyclop. Britan. 
vol. xviii. p. 331, 1797. See alo the History of the Tea 
Plant, p. 48. ; and p. 22 and 228 of this Treatise. 


cessary to shake up in a stopped vial, for a 
few minutes, a tea-spoonful of the suspected 
leaves, with about two table-spoonsful of li- 
quid ammonia, diluted with half its bulk of 
water. The supernatant liquid will exhibit 
a fine blue colour, if the minutest quantity 
of copper be present. 

Green tea, coloured with carbonate of cop- 
per, when thrown into water impregnated 
with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, immedi- 
ately acquires a black colour. Genuine 
green tea suffers no change from the action 
of these tests. 

The presence of copper may be further 
rendered obvious, by mixing one part of the 
suspected tea-leaves, reduced to powder, 
with two or three parts of nitrate of potash, 
(or with two parts of chlorate of potash,) and 
projecting this mixture by small portions a,t 


a time, into a platina, or porcelain-ware cru- 
cible, kept red-hot in a coal fire ; the whole 
vegetable matter of the tea leaves will thus 
become destroyed, and the oxid of copper 
left behind, in combination with the potash, 
of the nitrate of potash (or salt petre), or 
with the muriate of potash, if chlorate of 
potash has been employed. 

If water, acidulated with nitric acid, be 
then poured into the crucible to dissolve the 
mass, the presence of the copper may be 
rendered manifest by adding to the solution, 
liquid ammonia, in such quantity that the 
pungent odour of it predominates- 

<0ttttterfett Coffee. 

THE fraud of counterfeiting ground cof- 
fee by means of pigeons' beans and pease, 
is another subject which, ^not long ago, ar- 
rested the attention of the public : and 
from the numerous convictions of grocers 
prosecuted for the offence, it is evident that 
this practice has been carried on for a long 
time, and to a considerable extent. 

The following statement exhibits some of 
the prosecutions, instituted by the Solicitor 
of the Excise, against persons convicted of 
the fraud of manufacturing spurious, and 
adulterating genuine, coffee* 


Alexander Brady, a grocer, prosecuted 
and convicted of selling sham-coffee, 
said, " I have sold it for twenty years." 
Some of the persons prosecuted by the 
solicitor of the Excise for this fraud, we 
might, at first sight, be inclined to be- 
lieve, were inconscious that the adulterating 
of genuine coffee with spurious substances 
w r as illegal ; but this ignorance affords no 
excuse, as the Act of the 43 Geo. III. 
cap. 129, explicitly states : " If after the 
first day of September, 1803, any burnt, 
scorched, or roasted pease, beans, or other 
grain, or vegetable substance or substances 
prepared or manufactured for the purpose 
of being in imitation of or in any respect to 
resemble coffee or cocoa, or to serve as a 
substitute for coffee or cocoa, or alledged 
or pretended by the possessor or vender 


thereof so to be, shall be made or kept for 
sale, or shall be offered or expesed to sale, 
or shall be found in the custody or posses- 
sion of any dealer or dealers in or seller or 
sellers of coffee, or if any burnt, scorched, 
or roasted pease, beans, or other grain, or 
vegetable substance or substances, not being 
coffee, shall be called by the preparer, 
manufacturer, possessor, or vender thereof, 
by the name of English or British coffee, 
or any other name of coffee, or by the name 
of American cocoa, or English or British 
cocoa, or any other name of cocoa, the same 
respectively shall be forfeited, together with 
the packages containing the same, and shall 
and may be seized by any officer or officers 
of Excise; and the person or persons pre- 
paring, manufacturing, or selling the same* 
or having the same in his, her, or their cus* 


tody or possession, or the dealer or dealers 
in or seller or sellers of coffee or cocoa, in 
whose custody the same shall be found, 
shall forfeit and lose the sum of one hun- 
dred pounds." 

List of Grocers prosecuted and convicted 
by the Solicitor of the Excise (I8l8) t for 
adulterating Coffee. 

The Jlttorney-General against Malins, 
This was an information filed by the At- 
torney-General against the defendant, charg- 
ing him, he being a dealer in coffee, with 
having in his possession a large quantity of 
imitation coffee, made from scorched pease 
and beans, resembling coffee, and intended 
to be sold as such, contrary to the statute of 



the 43d of the King, whereby he became 
liable to pay a fine of 100. 

J.Lawes deposed that he had lived servant 
with the defendant; he constantly roasted 
pease and beans, and ground them into 
powder. When so ground, the powder 
very much resembled coffee. Sometimes 
the sweepings of the coffee were thrown in 
among the pease and beans. Witness carried 
out this powder to several grocers in differ- 
ent parts of the town. 

Thomas Jones lived with the defendant. 
His occupation was roasting and grinding 
pease and beans. They looked, when ground, 
the same as coffee. Witness had seen Mr. 
John Malins sweep up the refuse coffee, and 
mix it with the pease and beans. He had 
taken out this mixture to grocers. 

J. Richardson, an excise-officer, deposed, 


that, in December 1817, he went to the pre- 
mises of the defendant, and there seized 
four sacks, five tubs, and nine pounds in 
paper, of a powder made to resemble coffee. 
The quantity ground was 1,567 pounds; it 
had all the appearance of coffee; and a 
little coffee being mixed with it, any com- 
mon person might be deceived. He also 
seized two sacks containing 279 pounds of 
whole pease and beans roasted. Among" the 
latter were some grains of coffee. The 
witness here produced samples of the arti- 
cles seized. 

John Lawes deposed, that the articles 
exhibited were such as he was in the habit 
of manufacturing while in Mr. Mai ins' em- 

The jury found a verdict for the Crown. 
Penalty 100. 



The Kiny against Chaloner. -Mr. Cha- 
loner, a dealer in tea and coffee, was charged 
on the oaths of Charles Henry Lord and John 
Pearson, both Excise officers, with having 
in his possession, on the 17th of March, 
nine pounds of spurious coffee, consisting' 
of burnt pease, beans, and gravel or sand, 
and a portion of coffee, and with selling 
some of the same ; also with having in his 
possession seventeen pounds of vegetable 
powder, and an article imitating coffee, 
which contained not a particle of genuine 

The defendant was convicted in the pe- 
nalty of 90. 

The Kiny against Peether. This was an 
action similar to the last.- Verdict for the 
Crown, penalty of 50. 

The Kiny ayainst Toppiny. Verdict for 
the Crown, penalty of 50. 


The King against Hallett. Verdict for 
the Crown, penalty of 50. 

The King against Pox. This defendant, 
in his defence, said, he had sold sham coffee 
for years ; he did it as a matter of accom- 
modation to the poor, who could not give 

a higher price \ he did not sell it for ge- 

nuine coffee. 

Commissioner of the Excise. " Then 
you have been defrauding the public for 
.many years, and injuring the revenue by 
your illicit practices : the poor have an equal 
right to be supplied with as genuine an ar- 
ticle as the rich," 

He -wag convicted in the penalty of 50. 

The King against Brady. One of the 
commissioners tasted some of the sham 
coffee produced by the officers, and declared 
M 3 


tLat it was a most infamous stuff, and unfit 
for human food. 

Defendant. " Why, I have sold it for 
twenty years." 

Commissioner. " Then you have been 
for twenty years acting most dishonestly, 
defrauding the revenue ; and the health of 
the poor must have suffered very much by 
taking such an unwholesome article. Your 
having dealt in this article so long aggra- 
vates your case ; you have for twenty years 
been selling burnt beans and pease for ge- 
nuine coffee. You are convicted in the pe- 
nalty of 50." 

' \ 

The King against Bowser. This de- 
fendant pleaded guilty to the charge, and 
prayed the court to mitigate the penalty. 
He was convicted in the penalty of 50* 


The King against Owen*. Mr. Lawes 
addressed the commissioners on behalf of 
the defendant, in mitigation of punishment ; 
for he did not mean to deny the offence. 
His client was a very young man, and had 
been most unfortunate in business. He was 
not aware until lately of the existence of 
any law by which it could be punished. 

He was convicted in the penalty of 50 
for each quantity of sham coffee. 
. Mr. Greely and Mr. Dando were fined 
20 each ; and Mr. Hirling and Mr. Terry 
were fined 90 each, for selling spurious 
coffee f. 

The adulteration of ground coffee, with 
pease and beans, is beyond the reach of 

* Times, July 10, 1818. t Times, June 6, 1818. 


chemical analysis ; but it may, perhaps, not 
be amiss on this occasion to give to our 
readers a piece of advice given by a retired 
grocer to a friend, at no distant period : 
" Never, my good fellow," he said, " pur- 
chase from a grocer any thing which passes 
through his mill. You know not what 
you g*et instead of the article yon expect 
to receive coffee, pepper, and all-spice, 
are all mixed with substances which de- 
tract from their own natural qualities." 
Persons keeping mills of their own can at 
all times prevent these impositions. 


, ana 

BY the Excise laws at present existing 
in this country, the various degrees of 
strength of brandy, rum, arrack, gin, whis- 
key, and other spirituous liquors, chiefly 
composed of little else than spirit of wine, 
are determined by the quantity of alcohol 
of a given specific gravity contained in the 
spirituous liquor of a supposed unknown 
strength. The great public importance of 
this subject in this country, where the con- 
sumption of spirituous liquors adds a vast 

M 5 


sum to the public revenue, has been the 
means of instituting 1 many very interesting- 
series of experiments on this subject. The 
instrument used for that purpose by the 
Customs and officers of Excise, is called 
Sikes' s hydrometer*, which has now su- 
perseded the instrument called Clark's 
hydrometer, heretofore in use. 

The specific gravity or strength of the 
legal standard spirit of the Excise, is tech- 
nically called proof, or proof spirit. " This 
liquor (not being spirit sweetened, or having 
any ingredient dissolved in it, to defeat 
the strength thereof), at the temperature of 

* George III. c. xxviii, May 1818. " An Act for 
establishing the use of Sikes's hydrometer in ascer- 
taining the strength of spirit, instead of Clark's hy- 
drometer/' first established by 56 Geo. III. c. 3, 110, 
and amended by Geo, III. c. 28. 


51 Faht. weighs exactly fth parts of an 
equal measure of distilled water ;" and with 
this spirit the strength of all other spiritu- 
ous liquors are compared according to law. 

The strength of brandy, rum, arrack, gin, 
or other spirituous liquors, weaker than 
proof, or below proof, is estimated by the 
quantity of water which would be necessary 
to bring the spirit up to proof. 

The hydrometer is calculated to shew the 
percentage of strength above or below proof, 
as the case may be, of the spirit submitted 
to trial. The stern of the instrument is 
graduated, and so sub-divided, as to meet 
every variety in the strength of the liquor 
to be examined, which may fall between the 
weights (nine in number), used with the in- 
strument; the divisions and sub-divisions on 
the hydrometer, which remain above the sur- 
M 6 


face of the liquor in which the instrument 
is made to swim, being added to the number 
upon the weight used, and together forming 
the indication. 

But as the difference of temperature af- 
fects materially the specific gravity of spi- 
rituous liquors, a thermometer, and tables 
of the concentration of strength as denoted 
by the hydrometer, are used in the appli- 
cation of the instrument. The officer of 
the Excise has therefore only to turn to the 
tables opposite the indication, and imme- 
diately under the temperature he finds the 
percentage of the strength of the liquor. 

The quantity of proof spirit in any quan- 
tity of spirituous liquor of any other strength, 
is found by multiplying the quantity of spirit 
by its percentage of strength, the decimal 
point in the percentage being first renloved 
two places to the left hand, and deducting 


the product, if the spirit be below proof, 
from ; or adding it, if above proof, to the 
cjuantity of liquor. 

For Example, 125 gallons. 

Weight used.. 50. 

Subdivision shewn by the hydrometer... 1.2 


Temperature by the thermometer 68 

Opposite 51.2 on the column of indica- 
tions, and under the 68th degree of tem- 
perature, is 8.4 per cent, above proof; had 
it been below proof, the 10.500 must have 
been deducted, and would have left 1142 
of proof spirit, contained in the 125 gallons 
of the liquor. 

Brandy and rum is seizable^if sold by> or 
found in the possession of, the dealer, un- 
less it possesses a certain strength*. The 
following are the words of the Act : 

* Seventeen per cent below proof, according to 
Sikes's hydrometer* 


" No distiller, rectifier*, compounder or 
dealer, shall serve or send out any foreign 
spirits, of a lower strength than that of 1 
in 6 under hydrometer prooff, nor have in 
his possession any foreign spirits mixed to- 
gether, except shrub, cherry or raspberry 
brandy, of lower strength than as aforesaid, 
upon pain of such spirits being forfeited ; 
and such spirits, with the casks and vessels 
containing the same, may be seized by any 
officer of Excise.' 5 

We have, therefore, a ready check against 
the frauds of the dishonest dealers in spi- 
rituous liquors. If the spirit merchant 
engage to deliver a liquor of a certain 

* 30 Geo. III. c. 37, sec. 31. 

t According to Clarke's hydrometer, or 17 per cent, 
below proof, according to Sikes's hydrometer. 


strength, the hydrometer is by far the most 
easy and expeditious check that can be 
adopted to guard against frauds of receiving 
a weaker liquor for a stronger one ; and to 
those individuals who are in the habit of 
purchasing 1 large quantities of brandy, rum, 
or other spirituous liquors, the hydrometer 
renders the greatest service. For it is by 
no means an uncommon occurren^, to meet 
with brandy, rum, and other spirituous li- 
quors, of a specific gravity very much below 
the pretended strength which the liquor 
ought to possess. 

The following advice given to his read- 
ers*, by the author of a Treatise on Brewing 

* The Distillers' Guide, by P. Jonas, 1818, p. 3; 
also Observations on Malted and Unmalted Corn, 
connected with Brewing and Distilling, p. 167 ; and 
Shannon on Brewing and Distilling, p. 232, 233. 


and Distilling-, may serve to put the unwary 
on their guard against some of the frauds 
practised by mercenary dealers. 

" It is a custom among retailing- distillers, 
which I have not taken notice of in this di- 
rectory, to put one third or one fourth part 
of proof molasses brandy, proportionably, to 
what rum they dispose of; which cannot 
be distinguished, but by an extraordinary 
palate, and does not at all lessen the body or 
proof of the goods ; but makes them about 
two shillings a gallon cheaper; and must 
be well mixed and incorporated together in 
your retailing- cask ; but you should keep 
some of the best rum, not adulterated, to 
please some customers, whose judgment 
and palate must be humoured. 

" When you are to draw a sample of goods 
to shew a person that has judgment in the 


proof, do not draw your goods into a phial 
to be tasted, or make experiment of the 
strength thereof that way, because the proof 
will not hold except the goods be exceed- 
ingly strong; but draw the pattern of goods 
either into a p;lass from the cock, to run 
very small, or rather draw off a small 
quantity into a little pewter pot and pour 
it into your glass, extending your pot as 
high above the glass as you can without 
wasting it, which makes the goods carry a 
better head abundantly, than if the same 
goods were to be put and tried in a phial. 

" You must be so prudent as to make a 
distinction of the persons you have to deal 
with ; what goods you sell to gentlemen for 
their own use who require a great deal of 
attendance, and as much for time of pay- 
ment, you must take a considerably greater 


price than of others ; what goods you sell 
to persons where you believe there is a 
manifest, or at least some hazard of your 
money, you may safely sell for more than 
common profit ; what goods you sell to the 
poor, especially medicinally, (as many of 
your goods are sanative), be as compas- 
sionate as the cases require. 

" All brandies, whether French, Spanish, 
or English, being proof goods, will admit of 
one pint of liquor (water) to each gallon, 
to be made up and incorporated therewith 
in your cask, for retail, or selling smaller 
quantities ; and all persons that insist upon 
having proof goods, which not one in twenty 
understands, you must supply out of what 
goods are not so reduced, though at a 
higher price." 

Such is the advice given by Mr. Shannon. 


The mode of judging by the taste of spi- 
rituous liquors is deceitful. A false strength 
is given to a weak liquor, by infusing in it 
acrid vegetable substances, or by adding 
to it a tincture of grains of paradise and 
Guinea pepper. These substances impart 
to weak brandy or rum, an extremely hot 
and pungent taste. 

Brandy and rum is also frequently so- 
phisticated with British molasses, or sugar- 
spirit, coloured with burnt sugar. 

The flavour which characterises French 
brandy, and which is owing to a small 
portion of a peculiar essential oil contained 
in k, is imitated by distilling- British mo- 
lasses spirit over wine lees ; but the spirit, 
prior to being distilled over wine lees, is 
previously deprived, in part, of its peculiar 
disagi-eeable flavour, by rectification over 


fresh-burnt charcoal and quicklime. Other 
brandy-merchants employ a spirit obtained 
from raisin wine, which is suffered to pass 
into an incipient acescency. The spirit 
thus procured partakes strongly of the 
flavour which is characteristic of foreign 

Oak saw-dust, and a spirituous tincture 
of raisin stones, are likewise used to impart 
to new brandy and rum a ripe taste, resem- 
bling brandy or rum long kept in oaken 
casks, and a somewhat oily consistence, 
so as to form a double froth at its surface, 
when strongly agitated in a vial. The co- 
louring substances are burnt sugar, or mo- 
lasses; the latter gives to imitative brandy 
a luscious taste, and fulness in the mouth. 
These properties are said to render it parti- 
cularly fit for the retail London customers. 


The following- is the method of com- 
pounding or making up 9 as it is technically 
called, brandy* for retail: 


" To ten puncheons of brandy . 1081 

Add flavoured raisin spirit... 118 

Tincture of grains of paradise 4 

Cherry laurel water 2 

Spirit of Almond cakes 2 


" Add also 10 handfuls of oak saw-dust; 
and give it complexion with burnt sugar." 


THE false strength of brandy or rum is 
rendered obvious by diluting the suspected 

* Observations on Malted and Unmalted Corn, con- 
nected with Brewing and Distilling-, p, 167. 


liquor with water ; the acrimony of the cap- 
sicum, and grains of paradise, or pepper, 
may then be readily discovered by the 

The adulteration of brandy with British 
molasses, or sugar-spirit, becomes evident 
by rubbing a portion of the suspectetl 
brandy between the palm of the hands; the 
spirit, as it evaporates, leaves the disagree- 
able flavour which is peculiar to all British 
spirits. Or the liqour may be deprived of 
its alcohol, by heating a portion in a spoon 
over a candle, till the vapour ceases to catch 
fire on the approach of a lighted taper. The 
residue thus obtained, of genuine French 
brandy, possesses a vinous odour, still 
resembling* the original flavour of the 
brandy, whilst the residue, produced from 
sophisticated brandy, has a peculiar disa- 


greeable smell, resembling gin, or the breath 
of habitual drunkards. 

Arrack is coarsely imitated by adding to 
rum a small quantity of 'pyroligneous acid 
and some flowers (acid) of benzoe. The 
compound thus produced, however, must 
be pronounced a bad one. The author of a 
very popular Cookery Book, (the Cook's 
Oracle, 2d edition, p. 480,) directs two scru- 
ples of benzoic acid to be dissolved in one 
quart of rum, to make " mock arrack." 


MALT spirit, or gin, the favourite liquor 
of the lower order of people, which is cha- 
racterized by the peculiar flavour of juniper 
berries, over which the raw spirit is distilled, 


is usually obtained from a mixture of malt 
and barley : sometimes both molasses and 
corn are employed, particularly if there be 
a scarcity of grain. But the flavour of whis- 
key, which is made from barley and oats, is 
owing to the malted grain being dried with 
peat, the smoke of which gives it the charac- 
teristic taste. 

The malt distiller is not allowed to fur- 
nish, under a heavy penalty, any crude or 
raw spirit to the rectiiier or manufacturer 
of gin, of a greater strength than seven per 
cent over proof. The rectifier who receives 
the spirit from the inalt distiller is not al- 
lowed, under a certain penalty, to send out 
the spirit to his customers greater than of a 
certain strength, as is obvious from the fol- 
lowing words of the Act : 

" No rectifier or compounder shall sell or 


send out any British brandy, British rectified 
spirits, British compounds, or other British 
spirits, of greater strength than that of one 
in five under hydrometer proof (Clark's hy- 
drometer, equal to 22 per cent, below proof 
by Sikes's hydrometer) : and if he shall sell 
and send out any such spirits of a greater 
strength than that of one in five under hy- 
drometer proof, such spirits, with the casks 
or vessels containing the same, shall be for- 
feited, and may be seized by any officer of 
Excise ; and he shall forfeit treble the value 
of such spirit, or 50 at the election of the 
King's Attorney-General, or the person who 
shall sue for the same ; the single value of 
such spirits to be estimated at the highest 
London price." (30 Geo. III. c. 37, sec. 6.) 
If we examine gin, as retailed, we shall 
soon be convinced that it is a custom, pretty 



prevalent amongst dealers, to weaken this li- 
quor considerably with water, and to sweet- 
en it with sugar. This fraud may readily 
be detected by evaporating a quantity of the 
liquor in a table-spoon over a candle, to 
dryness ; the sugar will thus be rendered 
obvious, in the form of a gum-like substance, 
when the spirit is volatilised. 

One hundred and twenty gallons of ge- 
nuine gin, as obtained from the wholesale 
manufactories, are usually made up by frau- 
dulent retailers into a saleable commodity, 
with fourteen gallons of water and twenty- 
six pounds of sugar. Now this dilution of 
the liquor produces a turbidness; because 
the oil of juniper and other flavouring sub- 
stances which the spirit holds in solution, 
become precipitated by virtue of the water, 
and thus cause the liquor to assume an opa- 


line colour: and the spirit thus weakened 
cannot readily be rendered clear again by 
subsidence. Several expedients are had 
recourse to, to clarify the liquor in an expe- 
ditious manner ; some of which are hatm- 
less; others are criminal, because they ren- 
der the liquor poisonous. 

One of the methods, which is innocent, 
consists in adding to the weakened liquor, 
first, a port ion of alum dissolved in water, 
and then a solution of sub-carbonate of pot- 
ash. The whole is stirred together, and left 
undisturbed for twenty-four hours. The 
precipitated alumine thus produced from the 
alum, by virtue of the sub-carbonate of 
potash, acts as a strainer upon the milky 
liquor, and carries down with it the finely 
divided oily matter which produces the blue 
colour of the diluted liquor. Roach, or Ro- 



man alum, is also employed, without any 
other addition for clarifying- spirituous li- 

" To reduce unsweetened Gin*. 

" A tun of fine gin 352 gallons 

" Water... 36 

<f Which, added together, make... 288 gallons 
ec The doctor is now put on, and it 
is further reduced with water... 19 

" Which gives Total 307 gallons 

of gin. 

" This done, let lib. of alum be just co- 
vered with water, and dissolved by boiling ; 
rummage the whole well together, and pour 
in the alum, and the whole will be fine in a 
few hours." 

* Shannon on Brewing and Distilling, p. 198, and 
P. Jonas's Distillers' Guide, 1818, p. 42. 


" To prepare and sweeten British Gin*. 

" Get from your distiller an empty pun- 
cheon or cask, which will contain about 133 
gallons. Then take a cask of clear rectified 
spirits, 120 gallons, of the usual strength 
as rectify ers sell their goods at ; put the 
120 gallons of spirits into your empty cask. 

" Then take a quarter of an ounce of oil 
of vitriol, half an ounce of oil of almonds, a 
quarter of an ounce of oil of turpentine, one 
ounce of oil of juniper berries, half a pint of 
spirit of wine, and half a pound of lump su- 
gar. Beat or rub the above in a mortar. 
When well rubbed together, have ready 
prepared half a gallon of lime water, one 

* Shannon on Brewing and Distilling, n ; 19S. aiiu tne 
Distillers' Guide, by P. Jonas, p. 44. 



gallon of rose water; mix the whole in either 
a pail, or cask, with a stick, till every parti- 
cle shall be dissolved ; then add to the fore- 
going, twenty five pounds of sugar dissolved 
in about nine gallons of rain or Thames wa- 
ter, or water that has been boiled ; mix the 
whole well together, and stir them carefully 
with a stick in the 133 gallons cask. 

" To force down the same, take and boil 
eight ounces of alum in three quarts of water, 
for three quarters of an hour ; take it from 
the fire, and dissolve by degrees six or seVn 
ounces of salt of tartar. When the same is 
milk-warm, pour it into your gin, and stir it 
well together, as before, for five minutes,the 
same as you would a butt of beer newly 
fined. Let your cask stand as you mean to 
draw it. At every time you purpose to 
sweeten again, that cask must be well washed 


out; and take great care never to shake 
your cask all the while it is drawing." 

Another method of fining spirituous li- 
quors, consists in adding to it, first, a solu- 
tion of sub-acetate of lead, and then a solu- 
tion of alum. This practice is highly dan- 
gerous, because part of the sulphate of lead 
produced, remains dissolved in the liquor, 
which it thus renders poisonous. Unfortu- 
nately, this method of clarifying spirituous 
liquors, I have good reason to uelie V, i 
more frequently practised than the preced- 
ing method, because its action is more ra- 
pid; and it imparts to the liquor a fine com- 
plexion, or great refractive power; hence 
some vestiges of lead may often be detected 
in malt spirit. 

The weakened spirit is then sweetened 
with sugar, and, to cover the raw taste of 
N 4 


the malt spirit, a false strength is given to 
it with grains of paradise, Guinea pepper, 
capsicum, and other acrid and aromatic sub- 


nrpspnrp nf loarl imaty K Asi+^^+^A :~ 

--- ^ j,~ ~~~ -- . ~ ~xst~v* **xc.j WO ClC/l/CJ^tCCl iAl 

spirituous liquors, as stated pages 90 and 
114. The cordial called shrub frequently 
exhibits vestiges of copper. This contami- 
nation, I have been informed, is accidental, 
and originates from the metallic vessels em- 
ployed in the manufacture of the liquor, 



THE quantity of real alcohol in any spiri- 
tuous liquors may readily be ascertained by 
simple distillation, which process separates 
the alcohol from the water and foreign mat- 
ters contained in the liquor. Put any quan- 
tity of brandy, ruin, or malt spirit, diluted 
with about one-fourth its bulk of water, into 
a retort fitted to a capacious receiver, and 
distil with a gentle heat. The strongest 
spirit distils over first into the receiver, and 
the strength of the obtained products de- 
creases, till at last it contains so much water 
as no longer to be inflammable by the ap- 
N 5 


proach of a lighted taper, when held in a 
spoon over a caudle (see p. 210). If the 
process be continued, the distilled product 
becomes milky, scarcely spirituous to the 
smell, and of an acidulous taste* The dis- 
tilling operation may then be discontinued. 
If the first, fourth, or third part, of the dis- 
tilled product has been set a part, it will be 
found a moderately strong alcohol, and the 
remainder one more diluted. If the whole 
distilled spirit be mixed with perfectly dry 
subcarbonate of potash, the alcohol will float 
at the top of the potash, as stated p. 211 ; it 
will separate in two distinct fluids. If the 
decanted alcohol be re-distilled carefully 
with a very gentle heat, over a small portion 
of dry quick lime, or muriate of lime, it will 
be obtained extremely pure, and of a specific 
gravity of about 825, at 60 of temperature. 


Its flavour will vary according to the kind 
of spirituous liquor from which it is ob- 

Per Centage of Alcohol contained in va- 
rious kinds of Spirituous Liquors*. 

Proportion of 

Alcohol per Cent. 

by Measure. 

Brandy, Cogniac, average proportion of ) 

4 samples j 52 > 

Ditto, Bourdeaux, ditto ditto 54,50 

Ditto, Cette 53,00 

Ditto, Naples, average of three samples... 53,25 

Ditto, Spanish, average of 6 samples 52,28 

Rum 53,68 

Ditto, Leeward, average of 9 samples ... 53,00 

Scotch Whiskey, average of 6 samples.... 53,50 

Irish Ditto, average of 4 samples 54,25 

Arrack, Batavia 49,50 

Dutch Geneva 52,25 

Gin, Hodges's (own experiment), 3 sam- 7 

pies, procured from retail dealers S 

Ditto, (ditto) procured from the maim- j 

facturer ? 

* Repository of Arts, p. 350, Dec. 1819. 
N 6 

SEVERAL instances have come under my 
notice in which Gloucester cheese has been 
contaminated with red lead, and has pro- 
duced serious consequences on being taken 
into the stomach* In one poisonous sample 
which it fell to my lot to investigate, the 
evil had been caused by the sophistication 
of the anotto, employed for colouring cheese. 
This substance was found to contain a por- 
tion of red lead ; a method of sophistication 
which has lately been confirmed by the fol- 
lowing fact, communicated to the public by 
Mr. J. W. Wright> of Cambridge, and co- 


pied from the Repository of Arts, vol. viiu 
No. 47, p. 262. 

" Your readers ought here to be told, that 
several instances are on record, that Glou- 
cester and other cheeses have been found 
contaminated with red lead, and that this 
contamination has produced serious conse- 
quences. In the instance now alluded to, 
rnd probably in all other cases, the delete- 
rious mixture had been caused ignorantly, 
by the adulteration of the anotto employed 
for colouring- the cheese. This substance, 
in the instance I shall relate, was found to 
contain a portion of red lead ; a species of 
adulteration which subsequent experiments 
have shewn to be by no means uncommon. 
Before I proceed further to trace this fraud 
to its source, I shall briefly relate the cir- 


cumstknce which gave rise to its detec- 

" A gentleman, who had occasion to re- 
side for some time in a city in the West of 
England, was one night seized with a dis- 
tressing butindescribeable pain in the region 
of the abdomen and of the stomach, accom- 
panied with a feeling of tension, which oc- 
casioned much restlessness, anxiety, and re- 
pugnance to food. He began to apprehend 
the access of an inflammatory disorder ; but 
in twenty-four hours the symptoms entirely 
subsided. In four days afterwards he ex- 
perienced an attack precisely similar i and 
he then recollected* that having, on both oc- 
casions, arrived from the country late in the 
evening, he had ordered a plate of toasted 
Gloucester cheese, of which he had partaken 


heartily ; a dish which, when at home, re- 
gularly served him for supper. He attri- 
buted his illness to the cheese. The cir- 
cumstance was mentioned to the mistress of 
the inn, who expressed great surprise, as 
the cheese in question was not purchased 
from a country dealer, but from a highly 
respectable shop in London. He, therefore, 
ascribed the before-mentioned effects to 
some peculiarity in his constitution, A few 
days afterwards he partook of the same 
cheese ; and he had scarcely retired to rest, 
when a most violent colic seized him, which 
lasted the whole night and part of the en- 
suing day. The cook was now directed 
henceforth not to serve up any toasted 
cheese, and he never again experienced 
these distressing symptoms. Whilst this 


matter was a subject of conversation in the 
house, a servant-maid mentioned that a 
kitten had been violently sick after having 
eaten the rind cut off from the cheese pre- 
pared for the gentleman's supper. The 
landlady, in consequence of this statement, 
ordered the cheese to be examined by a 
chemist in the vicinity^ who returned for 
answer, that the cheese was contaminated 
with lead ! So unexpected an answer ar- 
rested general attention, and more particu- 
larly as the suspected cheese had been 
served up for several other customers. 

" Application was therefore made by the 
London dealer to the farmer who manufac- 
tured the cheese : he declared that he had 
bought the anotto of a mercantile traveller, 
who had supplied him and his neighbours 


for years with that commodity, without giv- 
ing occasion to a single complaint. On sub- 
sequent inquiries, through a circuitous chan- 
nel, unnecessary to be detailed here at 
length, on the part of the manufacturer of 
the cheese, it was found, that as the sup- 
plies of anotto had been defective and of 
inferior quality, recourse had been had to 
the expedient of colouring the commodity 
with vermillion. Even this admixture could 

**~t be Considered dlt^ r * nn - s - But on fur* 

ther application being made to the druggist 
who sold the article, the answer was, that 
the vermillion had been mixed with a por- 
tion of red lead; and the deception was held 
to be perfectly innocent, as frequently prac- 
tised on the supposition, that the vermillion 
would be used only as a pigment for house-* 


painting. Thus the druggist sold his ver- 
rnillion, in the regular way of trade, adulte- 
rated with red lead, to increase his profit, 
without any suspicion of the use to which it 
would be applied ; and the purchaser who 
adulterated the anotto, presuming that the 
vermillion was genuine, had no hesitation in 
heightening the colour of his spurious anotto 
with so harmless an adjunct. Thus, through 
the circuitous and diversified operations of 
Commerce, a portion of deadly poison ma^ 
find admission into the necessaries of life, in 
a way which can attach no criminality to 
the parties through whose hands it has suc- 
cessively passed." 

This dangerous sophistication may be de- 
tected by macerating a portion of the sus- 
pected cheese in water impregnated with 


sulphuretted hydrogen, acidulated with 
muriatic acid ; which will instantly cause 
the cheese to assume a brown or black co- 
lour, if the minutest portion of lead be pre- 


BLACK PEPPER is the fruit of a shrubby, 
creeping plant, which grows wild in the East 
Indies, and is cultivated, with much advan- 
tage, for the sake of its berries, in Java and 
Malabar. The berries are gathered before 
they are ripe, and are dried in the sun. 
They becoire black and corrugated on the 

That factitious pepper-corns have of late 
been detected mixed with genuine pepper, 
is a fact sufficiently known*. Such an 

* Thompson's Annals of Chemistry, 1816 ; a^o Re- 
pository of Arts, vol. i.1816, p. 11. 


adulteration may prove, in many instances 
of household economy, exceedingly vexa- 
tious and prejudicial to those who ignorantly 
make use of the spurious article. I have 
examined large packages of both black and 
white pepper, by order of the Excise, and 
have found them to contain about 16 per 
cent, of this artificial compound. The spu- 
rious pepper is made of oil cakes (the resi- 
due of lintseed, from which the oil has been 
pressed), common clay, and a portion of 
Cayenne pepper, formed in a mass, and gra- 
nulated by being first pressed through a 
sieve, and then rolled in a cask. The mode 
of detecting the fraud is easy. It is only 
necessary to throw a sample of the sus- 
pected pepper into a bowl of water ; the ar- 
tificial pepper- corns fall to powder, whilst 
the true pepper remains whole. 


Ground pepper is very often sophisticated 
by adding to a portion of genuine pepper 
a quantity of pepper dust, or the sweepings 
from the pepper warehouses, mixed with a 
little Cayenne pepper. The sweepings are 
known, and purchased in the market, under 
the name of P. D. signifying pepper dust. 
An inferior sort of this vile refuse, or the 
sweepings of P. D. is distinguished among 
venders by the abbreviation of D. P. D. de- 
noting, dust (dirt) of pepper dust. 

This adulteration of pepper, and the mak- 
ing and selling commodities in imitation of 
pepper, are prohibited, under a severe pe- 
nalty. The following are the words of the 
Act. (Geo. III. c. 53, sec. 21, 1819.) 

" And whereas commodities made in imi- 
tation of pepper have of late been sold and 
found in the possession of various dealers 


in pepper, and other persons in Great Bri- 
tain ; be it therefore enacted, that from and 
after the said 5th day of July 1819, if any 
commodity or substance shall be prepared 
by any person in imitation of pepper, shall 
be mixed with pepper, or sold or delivered 
as and for, or as a substitute for pepper, or if 
any such commodity or substance alone or 
mixed, shall be kept for sale, sold, or deli- 
vered, or shall be offered or exposed to sale, 
or shall be in custody or possession of any 
dealer or seller of pepper, the same, toge- 
ther with all pepper with which the same 
shall be mixed, shall be forfeited, with the 
packages containing the same, and shall 
and may be seized by any officer of excise ; 
and the person preparing, manufacturing, 
mixing as aforesaid, selling, exposing to 
sale, or delivering the same, or having the 


same in his, her, or their custody or posses- 
sion, shall forfeit the sum of one hundred 

The following prosecutions and convic- 
tions have lately come before the public : 

Mr, Baker* was charged with selling an 
injurious mixture of rape and mustard seed, 
called P. D. for pepper. 

The defendant pleaded ignorance, and he 
was ordered to pay a fine of 40s. 

James Hemmett, a grocer, in Kent-street, 
in the Borough, was charged with a similar 

Skinner, an officer, deposed, that on the 
13th of July last he bought a quarter of a 
pound of pepper at the shop of the defen- 
dant ; he afterwards examined it, and found 
it to contain an injurious mixture. 

* Morning Chronicle, January 6th and 19th, 1820. 


James Story, the Examining Officer, said, 
that there might be a little pepper in it, but 
the greatest part was P. D. and that of the 
most deleterious quality. 

The defendant pleaded ignorance of hav- 
ing it in his possession, but did not produce 
any witnesses. 

He was sentenced to pay a fine of 45s. 

Mr. Bowling, a grocer, was charged with 
a similar offence. 

The defendant pleaded that he had before 
been convicted by the Court, and trusted 
that would be a sufficient punishment. 

The Court thought this rather an aggra- 
vation, and again convicted him in the sum 
of 10. 

Mr. Powey* was charged with selling 

* Times, January 5th, 1820. 


pepper, containing an injurious mixture, with 
intent to defraud the revenue. As this ap- 
peared to be part of an oiien^e for which the 
defendant had been fined 5, the penalty 
was mitigated to 10s, 

James Beard w,as charged with selling" 
pepper containing a mixture called, in 
the trade, P. D which was nothing more 
than mustard and rape seed ground to- 
gether, and sold for peppejr dust. The 
Court expressed its determination to pro- 
tect the public from such frauds, and fined 
the defendant .5. 


THE common white pepper is factitious, 
being prepared from the black pepper in 
the following manner : - -The pepper is first 


steeped in sea water and urine, and ex- 
posed to the heat of the sun for several 
days, till the rind or outer bark loosens ; it 
is then taken out of the steep, and, when 
dry, it is rubbed with the hand till the rind 
falls off. The white fruit is then dried, and 
the remains of the rind blown away like 
chaff. A great deal of the peculiar flavour 
and pungent hot taste of the pepper is taken 
off by this process. White pepper is al- 
ways inferior in flavour and quality to 
black pepper. 

However, there is a sort of native white 
pepper, produced on a species of the pepper 
plant, which is much better than the facti- 
tious, and indeed little inferior to the com- 
mon black, pepper. 

o 2 

CAYENNE PEPPER is an indiscriminate 
mixture of the powder of the dried pods of 
many species of capsicum, but especially of 
the capsicum frutescens* or bird pepper, 
which is the hottest of all. 

This annual plant, a native of South Ame- 
rica, is cultivated in large quantities in our 
West India islands, and even frequently in 
our gardenSj for the beauty of its pods, which 
are long, pointed and pendulous, at first of 
a green colour, and, when ripe, of a bright 
orange red. They are filled with a dry loose 
pulp, and contain many small, flat, kidney- 


shaped seeds. The taste of capsicum is 
extremely pungent and acrimonious, setting 
the mouth, as it were, on fire. 

The principle on which its pungency de- 
pends, is soluble in water and in alcohol. 

It is sometimes adulterated with red lead, 
to prevent its becoming bleached on expo- 
sure to light. This fraud may be readily de- 
tected by shaking up part of it in a stopped 
vial containing water impregnated with sul- 
phuretted hydrogen gas, which will cause it 
speedily to assume a dark muddy black 
colour. Or the vegetable matter of the 
pepper may be destroyed, by throwing a 
mixture of one part of the suspected pepper 
and three of nitrate of potash (or two of 
chlorate of potash) into a red-hot crucible, 
in small quantities at a time. The mass left 
behind may then be digested in weak nitric 
o 3 


acid, and the solution assayed for lead by 
water impregnated with sulphuretted hy- 

" We advise those who are fond of Cay- 
enne not to think it too much trouble to 
make it of English Chillies there is no 
other way of being sure it is genuine. 
They will obtain a pepper of much finer fla- 
vour, without half the heat of the foreign ; 
and a hundred chillies will produce two 
6unces. The flavour of the chillies is very 
superior to that of the capsicums. Put 
them in a warm place to dry; then rub 
them in a mortar, as fin as possible, and 
keep them in a well stopped bottle*." 

* The Cook's Oracle, 12mo. 1S19. 


VEGETABLE substances, preserved in tlfe 
state called pickles, by means of the anti- 
septic power of vinegar, whose sale fre- 
quently depends greatly upon a fine lively 
green colour] knd the consumption of 
^vhich, by sea-faring people in particular, 
is prodigious, are sometimes intentionally 
coloured by means of copper. Gerkins, 
French beans, samphires, the green pods 
of capsicum, and many other pickled vege- 
table substances, oftener than is perhaps 
expected, are met with impregnated with 
this metal* Numerous fatal consequences 
o 4 


are known to have ensued from the use of 
these stimulants of the palate, to which the 
fresh and pleasing hue has been imparted 
according to the deadly formula laid down 
in some modern cookery books ; such as 
boiling the pickles with half-pence, or suf- 
fering them to stand for a considerable 
period in brazen vessels. 

Dr. Percival [Medical Transactions, vol. 
iv. p. 80] has given an account of " a 
young lady who amused herself, while her 
hair was dressing, with eating samphire 
pickles impregnated with copper. She soon 
complained of pain in the stomach; and, in 
five days, vomiting commenced, which was 
incessant for two days. After this, her sto- 
mach became prodigiously distended ; and, 
in nine days after eating the pickle, death 
relieved her from her suffering." 


Among many recipes which modern au- 
thors of cookery books have given for 
imparting a green colour to pickles, the 
following are particularly deserving of 
censure; and it is to be Loped that they 
will be suppressed in future editions of the 

" To Pickle Gerkins.* Boil the vinegar 
in a bell-metal or copper pot ; pour it boil- 
ing hot on your cucumbers." 

" To make greening '[.-'Take a bit of 
verdigrise, the bigness of ahazle-nut, finely 
powdered; half-a-pint of distilled vinegar, 
and a bit of alum powder, with a little bay 
salt. Put all in a bottle, shake it, and let 

* The Ladies' Library, vol. ii. p. 203. 

t Modern Cookery, or the English Housewife^ 2d 
edition, p. 94. 



it stand till clear. Put a small tea-spoon- 
ful into codlings, or whatever you wish to 

Mr. E. Raffeld* directs, " to render 
pickles green, boil them with halfpence, or 
allow them to stand for twenty-four hours 
in copper or brass pans." 

To detect the presence of copper, it 
is only necessary to mince the pickles, 
and to pour liquid ammonia, diluted with 
an equal bulk of water, over them in a 
stopped phial : if the pickles contain the 
minutest quantity of copper, the ammonia 
assumes a blue colour. 

* The English Housekeeper, p. 352, 354-. This 
book has run through 18 editions. 

gGrotttvatfdtt of 

VINEGAR, as prepared in this country, 
from malt, should be of a pale brown co- 
lour, perfectly transparent, of a pleasant, 
somewhat pungent, acid taste, and fragrant 
odour, but without any acrimony. From 
the mucilaginous impurities which malt 
vinegar always contains, it is apt, on ex- 
posure to air, to become turbid arid ropy, 
and at last vapid. The inconvenience is 
best obviated by keeping the vinegar; in 
bottles completely filled arid well corked ; 
and it is of advantage to boil it in the bottles 
a few minutes before they are corked. 


Vinegar is sometimes largely adulterated 
with sulphuric acid, to give it more acidity. 
The presence of this acid is detected, if, on 
the addition of a solution of acetate of ba- 
ry tes, a white precipitate is formed, which is 
insoluble in nitric acid, after having been 
made red-hot in the fire. (See p. 208.) With 
the same intention, of making the vinegar 
appear stronger, different acrid vegetable- 
substances are infused in it. This fraud is 
difficult of detection ; but when tasted with 
attention, the pungency of such vinegar will 
be found to depend rather on acrimony than 

Distilled vinegar, which is employed for 
various purposes of domestic economy, 
is frequently distilled, not in glass, as it 
ought to be, but in common stills with a 


pewter pipe, whence it cannot fail to ac- 
quire a metallic impregnation, 

One ounce, by measure, should dissolve 
at least thirteen grains of white marble. 

It should not form a precipitate on the 
addition of a solution of acetate of barytes, 
or of water saturated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen. The former circumstance shews 
that it is adulterated with sulphuric acid ; 
and the latter indicates a metal. 

The metallic impregnation is best ren- 
dered obvious by sulphuretted hydrogen, in 
the manner stated, page 87. The distilled 
vinegar of commerce usually contains tin, 
and not lead, as has been asserted* 

fttoutterotion of 

CREAM is often adulterated with rice pow- 
der or arrow-root. The former is frequently 
employed for that purpose by pastry-cooks, 
in fabricating creams and custards, for tarts, 
and other kinds of pastry. The latter is 
often used in the London dairies. Arrow- 
root is preferable to rice powder ; for, when 
converted with milk into a thick mucilage 
by a gentle ebullition, it imparts to cream, 
previously diluted with milk, a consistence 
and apparent richness, by no means unpa- 


latable, without materially impairing the 
taste of the cream. 

The arrow-root powder is mixed up with 
a small quantity of cold skimmed milk into 
a perfect, smooth, uniform mixture ; more 
milk is then added, and the whole boiled 
for a few minutes, to effect the solution of 
the arrow-root : this compound, when per- 
fectly cold, is mixed up with the cream. 
From 220 to 230 grains (or three large tea- 
spoonsful) of arrow-root are added to one 
pint of milk ; and one part of this solution 
is mixed with three of cream. It is scarcely 
necessary to state, that this sophistication 
is innocuous. 

The fraud may be detected by adding to 
a teaspoonful of the sophisticated cream 
a few drops of a solution of jodine in spirit 


of wine, which instantly produces with it a 
dark blue colour. Genuine cream acquires^ 
by the addition of this test, a faint yellow 

The common notion, of milk being adul- 
terated with chalk, or whiting, is unfounded. 
Such an adulteration is not practicable, 
without being immediately detected ; be- 
cause the smallest quantity of whiting, or 
chalk, speedily separates, and falls to the 

I have been frequently called upon to 
examine samples of milk, supposed to be 
sophisticated with whiting-, but a chemical 
examination of the milk always proved the 
contrary. That a liberal quantity of water 
is often added to the London milk, admits 
of no doubt. 


IN the preparation of sugar plums, com- 
fits, and other kinds of confectionery, espe- 
cially those sweetmeats of inferior qua- 
lity frequently exposed to sale in the open 
streets, for the allurement of children, the 
grossest abuses are committed. The white 
comfits, called sugar pease, are chiefly 
composed of a mixture of sugar^ starch, 
and Cornish clay (a species of very white 
pipe-clay); and the red sugar drops are 
usually coloured with the inferior kind of 
vermillion. This pigment is generally adul- 
terated with red lead. Other kinds of sweet- 


meats are sometimes rendered poisonous by 
being coloured with preparations of copper. 
The following account of Mr. Miles* may be 
advanced in proof of this statement: 

" Some time ago, while residing in the 
house of a confectioner, I noticed the co- 
louring of the green fancy sweetmeats being 
done by dissolving sap-green in brandy. 
Now sap-green itself, as prepared from the 
juice of the buckthorn berries, is no doubt 
a harmless substance; but the manufactu- 
rers of ; this colour have for many years past 
produced various tints, some extremely 
bright, -which there can be no doubt are 
effected by adding preparations of copper. 

" The sweetmeats which accompany 
these lines you will find exhibit vestiges 

* Philosoph. Mag. No. 25$, vol. M. 1819. p. 317. 


of being contaminated with copper. The 
practice of colouring these articles of con- 
fectionery should, therefore, be banished: 
the proprietors of which are not aware of 
the deleterious quality of the substances 
employed by them*" 

, The foreign conserves, such as small 
green limes, citrons, hop-tops, plums, an* 
gelica roots, &c. imported into this country, 
and usually sold in round chip boxes, are 
frequently impregnated with copper. 

The adulteration of confitures by means 
of clay, may be detected by simply dis- 
solving the comfits in a large quantity of 
boiling water. The clay, after suffering 
the mixture to stand undisturbed for a few 
days, will fall to the bottom of the vessel ; 
and on decanting the clear fluid, and suffer- 
ing the sediment to become dry gradually, it 


may be obtained in a separate state. If the 
adulteration has been effected by means of 
clay, the obtained precipitate, on exposure 
to a red heat in the bowl of a common 
tobacco-pipe, acquires a brick hardness. 

The presence of copper may be detected 
by pouring over the comfits liquid ammonia, 
which speedily acquires a blue colour, if 
this metal be present. The presence of 
lead is rendered obvious by water impreg- 
nated with sulphuretted hydrogen, acidu- 
lated with muriatic acid (see p. 87), which 
assumes a dark brown or black colour, if 
lead be present. 



THIS article is very often subjected to 
one of the most reprehensible modes of adul- 
teration ever devised. Quantities are daily 
to be met with, which, on a chemical exa- 
mination, are found to abound with copper. 
Indeed, this condiment is often nothing else 
than the residue left behind after the process 
employed for obtaining distilled vinegar, 
subsequently diluted with a decoction of the 
outer green husk of the walnut, and sea- 
soned with all-spice, Cayenne pepper, pi- 
mento. garlick, and common salt*. 

* The best method of making Mushroom Catsup is 
detailed in receipt No. 439, of the Cook's Oracle. It 
is too long to insert here. 


The quantity of copper which we have, 
more than once, detected in this sauce, used 
for seasoning, and which, on account of its 
cheapness, is much resorted to by people in 
the lower walks of life, has exceeded the 
proportion of lead to be met with in other 
articles employed in domestic economy. 

The following account of Mr. Lewis, (Li- 
terary Chronicle, No. 24, p. 379,) on this 
subject, will be sufficient to cause the public 
to be on their guard. 

" Being in the habit of frequently pur- 
chasing large quantities of pickles and other 
culinary sauces, for the use of my establish- 
ment^ and also for foreign trade, it fell lately 
to my lot to purchase from a manufacturer 
of those commodities a quantity of walnut 
catsup, apparently of an excellent quality; 
but, to my great surprise, I had reason to 


believe that the article might be contami- 
nated with some deleterious substance, from 
circumstances which happened in my busi- 
ness as a tavern keeper, but which are un- 
necessary to be detailed here; and it was 
this that induced me to make inquiry con- 
cerning the compounding of the suspected 

" The catsup being prepared by boiling 
in a copper, as is usually practised, the 
outer green shell of walnuts, after having 
been suffered to turn black by exposure to 
auyia combination with common salt, with a 
portion of pimento and pepper dust, in com- 
mon vinegar, strengthened with some vine- 
gar extract, left behind as residue in the still 
of vinegar manufacturers; I therefore Sus- 
pected that the catsup might be impregnated 


with some copper. To convince myself of 
this opinion, I boiled down to dry ness a 
quart of it in a stone pipkin, which yielded 
tome a dark brown mass. I put this mass 
into a crucible, and kept it on a coal fire, 
red hot, till it became reduced to a porous 
black charcoal ; on urging the heat with a 
pair of bellows, and stirring the mass in the 
crucible with the stem of a tobacco-pipe, it 
became, after two hours' exposure to an in- 
tense heat, converted into a greyish-white 
ash; but no metal could be discriminated 
amongst it. I now poured upon it some 
aqua fortis, which dissolved nearly the whole 
of it, with an effervescence; and produced, 
after having been suffered to stand, to let the 
insoluble portion subside, a bright grass- 
green solution, of a strong metallic taste; 


after immersing into this solution the blade 
of a knife, it became instantly covered with 
a bright coat of copper." 

" The walnut catsup was therefore evi- 
dently strongly impregnated with copper. 
On informing the manufacturer of this fact, 
he assured me, that the same method of pre- 
paring the liquor was generally pursued, 
and that he had manufactured the article in 
a like manner for upwards of twenty years. 

" Such is the statement I wish to commu- 
nicate; and if you will allow it a place in 
your Literary Chronicle, it may perhaps tend 
to put the unwary on their guard against the 
practice of preparing this sauce by boiling it 
in a copper, which certainly may contami- 
nate the liquor, and render it poisonous." 


LOZENGES, particularly those into the 
composition of which substances enter that 
are not soluble in water, as ginger, cream of 
tartar, magnesia, &c. are often sophisticated. 
The adulterating ingredient is usually pipe- 
clay, of which a liberal portion is substituted 
for sugar. The following detection of tin's 
fraud was lately made by Dr. T. Lloyd. 
(Literary Gazette, No. 146.) 

" Some ginger lozenges having lately 
fallen into my hands, I was not a little sur- 
prised to observe, accidentally, that when 
thrown into a coal fire, they suffered but 


little change. If one of the lozenges were 
laid on a shovel, previously made red-hot, 
it speedily took fire ; but instead of burning 
with a blaze and becoming converted into a 
charcoal, it took fire, and burnt with a fee- 
ble flame for scarcely half a minute, and 
there remained behind a stony hard sub- 
stance, retaining the form of the lozenge. 
This unexpected result led me to examine 
these lozenges, which were bought at a re- 
spectable chemist's shop in the city ; and I 
soon became convinced, that, in the prepa- 
ration of them, a considerable quantity of 
common pipe-clay had been substituted for 
sugar. On making a complaint about this 
fraud at the shop where the article was sold, 
I was informed that there were two kinds of 
ginger lozenges kept for sale, the one at 
three-pence the ounce, and the other at six- 


pence per ounce ; and that the article fur- 
nished to me by mistake was the cheaper 
commodity; the latter were distinguished 
by the epithet verum, they being composed 
of sugar and ginger only: but the former 
were manufactured partly of white Cornish 
clay, with a portion of sugar only, with gin- 
ger and Guinea pepper. I was likewise in- 
formed, that of Tolu lozenges, peppermint 
lozenges and ginger pearls, and several 
other sorts of lozenges, two kinds were kept; 
that the reduced articles, as they were called, 
were manufactured for those very clever 
persons in their own conceit, who are fond of 
haggling, and insist on buying better bar- 
gains than other people, shutting their eyes 
to the defects of an article, so that they can 
enjoy the delight of getting it cheap ; and, 
secondly, for those persons, who being but 


bad paymasters, yet, as the manufacturer, 
for his own credit's sake, cannot charge 
more than the usual price of the articles, he 
thinks himself therefore authorized to adul- 
terate it in value, to make up for the risk he 
runs, and the long credit he gives." 

The comfits, called ginger pearls, are fre? 
quently adulterated with clay. Thesefrauds 
may be detected in the manner stated, page 

p 3 

THIS commodity is sometimes contami- 
nated with lead, because the fruit which 
yields the oil is submitted to the action of 
the press between leaden plates ; and it is, 
moreover, a practice (particularly in Spain) 
to suffer the oil to become clear in leaden 
cisterns, before it is brought to market for 
sale. The French and Italian olive oil is 
usually free from this impregnation. 

Olive oil is sometimes mixed with oil of 
poppy seeds : but, by exposing the mixture 
to the freezing temperature, the olive oil 


freezes, while that of the poppy seeds re- 
mains fluid ; and as oils which freeze with 
most difficulty are most apt to become rancid, 
olive oil is deteriorated by the mixture of 
poppy oil. 

Good olive oil should have a pale yellow 
colour, somewhat inclining to green ; a 
bland taste, without smell ; and should con- 
geal at 38 Fahrenheit. In this country, it 
is frequently met with rancid. 

The presence of lead is detected by shak- 
ing, in a stopped vial, one part of the sus- 
pected oil, with two or three parts of water, 
impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen. 
This agent will render the oil of a dark 
brown or black colour, if any metal, delete- 
rious to health, be present. The practice of 
keeping this oil in pewter or leaden cisterns, 


as is often the case, is objectionable ; because 
the oil acts upon the metal. The dealers in 
this commodity assert, that it prevents the 
oil from becoming rancid : and hence some 
retailers often suffer a pewter measure to 
remain immersed in the oil. 

of 3*mott 8tfou 

IT is well known to every one, that the 
expressed juice of lemons is extremely apt 
to spoil, on account of the saccharine muci- 
lagenous matter which it contains ; and 
hence various means have been practised, 
with the intention of rendering" it less perish- 
able, and less bulky. The juice has been 
evaporated to the consistence of rob; but 
this always gives an unpleasant empyreu- 
matic taste, and does not separate the foreign 
matters, so that it is still apt to spoil when 
agitated on board of ship in tropical climates. 
It has been exposed to frost, and part of the 
water removed under the form of ice; but 
this is liable to all the former objections: 
and, besides, where lemons are produced in 
sufficient quantity, there is not a sufficient 
p 5 


degree of cold. The addition of a portion of 
spirit to the inspissated juice, separates the 
mucilage, but not the extractive matter and 
the sugar. By means, however, of sepa- 
rating the foreign matters associated with it 
in the juice, by chemical processes unneces- 
sary to be detailed here, citric acid is now 
manufactured, perfectly pure, and in a crys- 
tallised form, and is sold under the name of 
concrete lemon acid. In this state it is ex- 
tremely convenient, both for domestic and 
medicinal purposes. One drachm, when dis- 
solved in one ounce of water, is as acid as a 
like bulk of fresh lemon juice. To commu- 
nicate the flavour of the lemon, rub a lump 
of sugar on the rind of a lemon to become 
impregnated with a portion of the essential 
oil of the fruit, and add this to the lemonade^ 
negus, punch, shrub, jellies, or culinary 
sauces, prepared with the pure citric acid. 


Fraudulent dealers often substitute the 
cheaper tartareous acid for citric acid. The 
neg'iis and lemonade made by the pastry- 
cooks, and the punch sold at taverns in this 
metropolis, is made with tartareous acid. 

To discriminate citric acid from tartare- 
ous acid, it is only necessary to add a con- 
centrated solution of the suspected acid, to 
a concentrated solution of muriate of potash, 
taking care that the solution of the acid is in 
excess. If a precipitate ensue, the fraud is 
obvious, because citric acid does not produce 
a precipitate with a solution of muriate or 
potash. Or, by adding to a saturated solution 
of tartrate of potash, a saturated solution of 
the suspected acid, in excess, which produces 
with it an almost insoluble precipitate in 
minute granular crystals. Pure citric acid 
produces no such effect when added m 
excess to tartrate of potash. 


THE beverage called soda water is fre- 

quently contaminated both with copper and 

lead ; these metals being largely employed 

in the construction of the apparatus for pre- 

paring the carbonated water*, and the great 

excess of carbonic acid which the water con- 

tains, particularly enables it to act strongly 

oft the metallic substances of the apparatus; 

a truth, of which the reader will find no 

difficulty in convincing himself, by suffering 

a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen gas to 

pass through the water. (See p. 89.) 

* Some manufacturers have been hence induced to 
construct the apparatus for manufacturing soda water 
wholly either of earthenware or of glass. Mr. Johnston* 
of Greek Street, Soho, was the first who pointed out 
to the public the absolute necessity of this precaution. 

SEVERAL samples which we have ex- 
amined of this fish sauce, have been found 
contaminated with lead. 

The mode of preparation of this fish- 
sauce, consists in rubbing down the broken 
anchovy in a mortar: and this triturated 
mass, being of a dark brown colour, re- 
ceives, without much risk of detection, a 
certain quantity of Venetian red, added for 
the purpose of colouring it, which, if ge- 
nuine, is an innocent colouring substance : 
but instances have occurred of this pigment 
having been adulterated with orange lead, 
which is nothing else than a better kind of 


minium, or red oxid of lead. The fraud 
may be detected as stated p. 312. 

The conscientious oilmen, less anxious 
with respect to colour, substitute for this 
poison the more harmless pigment, called 
Armenian bole. 

The following- recipe for making this fish 
sauce is copied from Gray's Supplement to 
the Pharmacopoeias, p. 241. 

" Anchovies, 2 Ibs. to 4 Ibs. and a half; 
pulp through a fine hair sieve; boil the 
bones with common salt, 7 oz. in water 
6 Ibs.; strain; add flour 7 oz. and the pulp 
of the fish ; boil ; pass the whole through 
the sieve ; colour with Venetian red to your 
fancy. It should produce 1 gallon." 

As this fish sauce is so often in request, 
we give the following receipt of the best 
way of making it : 


" Put 10 or 12 anchovies into a mortar, 
and pound them to a pulp ; put this into a 
very clean iron, or well tinned copper sauce- 
pan ; then put a table spoonful of cold spring 
\vater into the mortar; shake it round, and 
pour it to the anchovies; set them over, 
or by the side of a gentle fire, and stir them 
very frequently till they are melted ; then 
add a quarter of a drachm (avoirdupois) 
of Cayenne; let it remain by the fire a few 
minutes longer; then while warm rub it 
through a hair sieve with the back of a 
wooden spoon*." 

From the Cook's Oracle, 2nd edit. 1819, receipt 


THE leaves of the cherry laurel, prunus 
lauro-cerasus, a poisonous plant, have a 
nutty flavour, resembling that of the kernels 
of peach-stones, or of bitter almonds, which 
to most palates is grateful. These leaves 
have for many years been in use among 
cooks, to communicate an almond or kernel- 
like flavour to custards, puddings, creams, 
blanc-mange, and oilier delicacies of the 

It has been asserted, that the laurel poison 
in custards and other articles of cookery, 
is, on account of its being used in very small 


quantities, quite harmless. To refute this 
assertion, numerous instances might be cited; 
and, among them, a recent one, in which four 
children suffered most severely from par- 
taking of custard flavoured with the leaves 
of this poisonous plant. 

" Several children at a boarding-school, 
in the vicinity of Richmond, having par- 
taken of some custard flavoured with the 
leaves of the cherry laurel, as is frequently 
practised by cooks, one of the poor inno- 
cents were taken severely ill in consequence. 
Two of them, a girl six years of age, and a 
boy of five years old, fell into a profound 
sleep, out of which they could not be roused." 

" Notwithstanding the various medical 
exertions used, the boy remained in a stupor 
ten hours, and the girl nine hours; the 


other two, one of which was six years old, 
a girl, and a girl of seven years, complained 
of severe pains in the epigastric region. 
They all recovered, after three days' illness. 
I am anxious to communicate to you this 
fact, being convinced that your publication 
is read at all the scholastic establishments 
in this part of the country. I hope you will 
allow these lines a corner in your Literary 
Chronicle, where they may contribute to 
put the unwary on their guard, against the 
deleterious effects of flavouring culinary 
dishes with that baneful herb, the Cherry 

" I am, with respect, your's, Sir, 


* Literary Chronicle, No. 2% p. 348. 1819, 


What person of sense or prudence, then, 
would trust to the discretion of an ignorant 
cook, in mixing so dangerous an ingredient 
in his puddings and creams ? Who but a 
maniac would choose to season his victuals 
with poison? 

The water distilled from cherry laurel 
leaves is frequently mixed with brandy and 
other spirituous liquors, to impart to them 
the flavour of the cordial called noyeau 
(see also page 261). 

This fluid, though long in frequent use 
as a flavouring substance, was not known 
to be poisonous until the year 1728; when 
the sudden death of two women, in Dublin, 
after drinking some of the common distilled 
cherry laurel water, demonstrated its de- 
leterious nature. 

MUSHROOMS have been long used in 
sauces and other culinary preparations ; yet 
there are numerous instances on record of 
the deleterious effects of some species of 
these fungi, almost all of which are fraught 
with poison*. Pliny already exclaims 
against the luxury of his countrymen in thia 
article, and wonders what extraordinary 
pleasure there can be in eating such danger- 
ous foodf. 

But if the palate must be indulged with 

these lethal luxuries, or, as Seneca calls 
them, " voluptuous poison J," it is highly ne- 

* Fungi plerique veneno turgent. Linn. Amsen. Acid. 

t Quae voluptas tanta ancipitks cibi? Plin. Nat. 
Hist. xxii. 23. 

J Sen. Ep. 96. 


cessary that the mild eatable mushrooms 
should be gathered by persons skilful 
enough to distinguish the good from the 
false, or poisonous, which is not always the 
case; nor are the characters which distin- 
guish them strongly marked. 

The following statement is published by 
Mr. Glen, surgeon, of Knightsbridge : 

" A poor man, residing in Knightsbridge, 
took a walk in Hyde Park, with the inten- 
tion of gathering some mushrooms. He col- 
lected a considerable number, and, after 
stewing them, began to eat them. He had 
finished the whole, with the exception of 
about six or eight, when, about eight or ten 
minutes from the commencement of his meal, 
he was suddenly seized with a dimness, or 

mist before his eyes, a giddiness of the Lead, 

with a general trembling and sudden loss of 


power ; so much so, that he nearly fell off 
the chair; to this succeeded, loss of recol- 
lection ; he forgot where he was, and all the 
circumstances of his case. This deprivation 
soon went off, and he so far rallied as to be 
able, though with difficulty, to get up, with 
the intention of going to Mr.Glen for assist- 
ance a distance of about five hundred 
yards : he had not proceeded more than half 
way, when his memory again failed him : he 
lost his road, although previously well ac- 
quainted with it. He was met by a friend, 
who with difficulty learned his state, and 
conducted him to Mr. Glen's house. His 
countenance betrayed great anxiety ; he 
reeled about, like a drunken man, and was 
greatly inclined to sleep ; his pulse was low 
and feeble. Mr. Glen immediately gave 
him an emetic draught. The poison had so 
diminished the sensibility of the stomach, 


that vomiting did not take place for nearly 
twenty minutes, although another draught 
had been exhibited. During this interval 
his drowsiness increased to such a degree, 
that he was only kept awake by obliging 
him to walk round the room with assistance: 
he also, at this time, complained of distress- 
ing pains in the calves of his legs. Full w>- 
miting was at length produced. After the 
operation of the emetic, he expressed him- 
self generally better, but still continued 
drowsy. In the evening Mr. Glen found 
him doing well." 

The following case is recorded in the Me- 
dical Transactions, vol. ii. 

" A middle-aged man having gathered 
what he called champignons, they were 
stewed, and eaten by himself and his wife ; 
their child also, about four years old, ate a 
little of them, and the sippets of bread which 


were put into the liquor. Within five mi- 
nutes after eating them, the man began to 
stare in an unusual manner, and was unable 
to shut his eyes. All objects appeared to 
him coloured with a variety of colours. He 
felt a palpitation in what he called his sto- 
mach ; and was so giddy that he could 
hardly stand. He seemed to himself swelled 
all over his body. He hardly knew what 
he did or said ; and sometimes was unable 
to speak at all. These symptoms continued 
in a greater or less degree for twenty-four 
hours; after which, he felt little or no dis- 
order. Soon after he perceived himself ill, 
one scruple of white vitriol was given him, 
and repeated two or three times, with which 
he vomited plentifully. 

" The woman, aged thirty-nine, felt all 
the same symptoms, but in a higher degree. 
She totally lost her voice and her senses, 


and was either stupid, or so furious that it 
was necessary she should be held. The 
white vitriol was offered to her, of which she 
was capable of taking but very little; how- 
ever, after four or five hours, she was much 
recovered: but she continued many days 
far from being well, and from enjoying her 
former health and strength. She frequently 
fainted for the first week after; and there 
was, during a month longer, an uneasy sense 
of heat and weight in her breast, stomach, 
and bowels, with great flatulence. Her 
head was, at first waking, much confused ; 
and she often experienced palpitations, 
tremblings, and other hysteric affections; 
to $11 which she had ever before been a 

" The child tMf some convulsive agita- 
tions of his arms, but was otherwise little 


affected. He was capable of taking half a 
scruple of ipecacuanha, with which he vo- 
mited, and was soon perfectly recovered." 


THE edible mushroom is the basis of the 
sauce called mushroom catsup ; a great pro- 
portion of which is prepared by gardeners 
who grow the fungi. The mushrooms em- 
ployed for preparing this sauce are gene- 
rally those which have not found a ready 
sale in the market, and are in a putrified 
state ; for no vegetable substance is liable to 
so rapid a spontaneous decomposition as 
mushrooms. In a few days after they have 
been gathered from the dung-bed on which 
they grow, they become the habitation of 
myriads of in&rcts ; and, if even the fresh 
mushroom be attentively examined, it will 
frequently be found to swarm with life. 


ALTHOUGH we have already made some 
remarks on the sophistication of milk (page 
302), the following additional statement may 
not be deemed superfluous. 

The most correct method of ascertaining 
the different qualities of milk, or the rela- 
tive richness of different kinds of milk, is 
by means of a simple instrument, lately 
constructed at the suggestions of Sir Joseph 

It consists of any number of cylindrical 
glass tubes of the same internal diameter, 
which is generally about half an inch, or J 


of an inch ; and about 10 or 12 inches long. 
They are closed at one end, and open, and 
a little flanched at the other, like the test 
tubes used by chemists, and are mounted on 
a stand in the same manner. At the distance 
of about 10 inches from the bottom of each 
tube is a line or mark, with 0, or zero, placed 
opposite it, and from this point the tube is 
graduated into tenths of an inch, and num- 
bered downwards for 2 or 3 inches, so that 
each division is iJo^ 1 of the capacity of the 

If several of the tubes are filled with milk 
at the same time, and placed at the same 
temperature, the cake of cream will form at 
the top, and its quantity or percentage will 
be read off by mere inspection. 

In this way experiments may be made on 
the relative quantities of cream produced 


by different systems of feeding, or by dif- 
ferent animals' feed, and placed under dif- 
ferent circumstances. A standard milk, 
with which all other samples are to be 
compared, may readily be fixed by saying 
what lactometer strength it shall possess. 
From experiments we have made with 
several samples of genuine skimmed coun- 
try milk, we are authorised to state, that 
the London milk was found by no means 
to be so very much inferior to the country 
skimmed milk, as might perhaps be ex- 
pected. The tests by the lactometer never 
indicate more than from 8 to 10 per cent, 
of water. 


ISINGLASS may be considered as an ali- 
mentary substance employed in dometie 
economy. By boiling isinglass in water, it 
becomes dissolved, and furnishes a mild 
tremulous jelly, which, when seasoned with 
cream, bitter almonds, and sugar, is called 
blanc-mange; and when seasoned with 
lemon juice, sugar, and aromatics, forms 
the basis of many delicacies for the table. 
It is also employed in domestic use in the 
clarification of various liquors ; and if small 
shreds are thrown into boiling coffee, it 
renders it clear in a few minutes. 


This substance is frequently adulterated 
with shreds of the skins of the dried blad- 
der of horses, and with other animal mem- 
branes. This fraud may be detected by the 
shreds not dissolving when boiled in water. 
Genuine isinglass should be totally soluble 
without leaving any filaments. 

The best isinglass is perfectly transpa- 
rent ; it occurs in commerce twisted in the 
form of a lyre or a heart ; and the worst is 
formed into the shape of pancakes. 



CINNAMON is often adulterated with cassia 
bark, or by mixing 1 with the genuine cinna- 
mon, a portion of cinnamon bark which 
has been deprived of its essential oil by 

The best cinnamon is rather pliable, and 
ought not much to exceed stout writing 
paper in thickness. It is of a light yellow- 
ish colour; it possesses a sweet taste, not 
so hot as to occasion pain, and not suc- 
ceeded by any aftertaste. The inferior 
kind is distinguished by being thicker, of 
a darker and brownish colour, hot and pun- 


gent when chewed, and succeeded by a 
disagreeable bitter after-taste. The cassia 
bark, which greatly resembles the true cin- 
namon, is thicker, and of a coarser texture, 
and breaks short and smooth, whilst true 
cinnamon breaks fibrous and splintery. 
Cassia has a slimy mucilagenous taste, and 
without any of the roughness of the true 
cinnamon bark. 


gftmtttratfon of 

GENUINE mustard, either in powder, or in 
the state of a paste ready for vise, is perhaps 
rarely to be met with in the shops. The 
article sold under the name of patent mus- 
tard, is usually a mixture of mustard and 
common wheaten flour, with a portion of Cay- 
enne pepper, and a large quantity of bay 
salt, made with water into a paste, ready for 
use. Some manufacturers adulterate their 
mustard with raddish-seed and pease flour. 

It has often been stated, that a fine yellow 
colour is given to mustard by means of tur- 
meric. We doubt the truth of this assertion* 
The presence of the minutest quantity of 


turmeric may instantly be detected, by add- 
ing to the mustard a few drops of a solution 
of potash, or any other alcali, which changes 
the bright yellow colour, to a brown or deep 
orange tint. 

Two ounces and a half of Cayenne pep- 
per, l|lb of bay salt, 81b of mustard flour, 
and ltb of wheaten flour, made into a stiff 
paste, with the requisite quantity of water 
in which the bay-salt is previously dissolved, 
forms the patent mustard, sold in pots. 
The salt and Cayenne pepper contribute 
materially to the keeping of ready-made 

There is therefore nothing deleterious in 
the usual practice of adulterating this com- 
modity of the table. The fraud only tends 
to deteriorate the quality and flavour of the 
genuine article itself. 

Q 6 

amttterattott of 

THIS article is frequently nothing else 
than a mixture of the worst kind of gum 
arabic, called Indian or Barbary gum, im- 
ported chiefly for the use of making shoe- 
blacking. A solution of the genuine Spa- 
nish liquorice juice is mixed with a solution 
of Barbary gum; and the mixture, after being 
inspissated to a proper consistence, is again 
made up into cylindrical rolls, which, whilst 
still moist, are covered with bay-leaves, and 
re-packed in chests, to resemble in every re- 
spect the genuine Spanish liquorice juice, 
imported from Catalonia. It is difficult to 


detect this fraud. Genuine Spanish liquo- 
rice should be perfectly black, brittle when 
cold, and break with a smooth and glassy 
fracture ; it should not become sensibly 
clammy or damp, on exposure in a dry 
place ; it should have a sweet taste, without 
empyreuma; and be soluble in water, with- 
out leaving any residue. 

bg Copper 

MANY kinds of viands are frequently im- 
pregtiated with copper, in consequence of 
the employment of cooking utensils made 
of that metal. By the use of such vessels 
in dressing food, we are daily liable to be 
poisoned; as almost all acid vegetables, as 
well as sebaceous or pinguid substances^ 
employed in culinary preparations, act upon 
copper, and dissolve a portion of it; and 
too many examples are met with of fatal 
consequences having ensued from eating 
food which had been dressed in copper 


vessels not well cleaned from the oxid of 
copper which they had contracted by being 
exposed to the action of air and moisture. 

The inexcusable negligence of persons 
who make use of copper vessels has been 
productive of mortality, so much more ter- 
rible, as they have exerted their action 
on a great number of persons at once. 
The annals of medicine farnish too many 
examples in support of this assertion, to 
render it necessary to insist more upon it 

Mr. Thiery, who wrote a thesis on the 
noxious quality of copper, observes, that 
" our food receives its quantity of poison in 
the kitchen by the use of copper pans and 
dishes. The brewer mingles poison in our 
beer, by boiling it ill copper vessels. The 
sugar-baker employs copper pans; the 


pastry-cook bakes our tarts in copper 
moulds ; the confectioner uses copper ves- 
sels; the oilman boils his pickles in copper 
or brass vessels, and verdigrise is plenti- 
fully formed by the action of the vinegar 
upon the metal. 

" Though, after all, a single dose be nojt 
mortal, yet a quantity of poison, however 
small, when taken at every meal, must pro- 
duce more fatal effects than are generally 
apprehended; and different constitutions 
are differently affected by minute quantities 
of substances that act powerfully on the 

The author of a tract, entitled, " Serious 
Reflections on the Dangers attending the 
Use of Copper Vessels," asserts that a nu- 
merous and frightful train of diseases is 
occasioned by the poisonous effects of per- 


nicious matter received into the stomach 
insensibly with our victuals. 

Dr. Johnston* gives an account of the 
melancholy catastrophe of three men being 
poisoned, after excruciating sufferings, in 
consequence of eating food cooked in an 
unclean copper vessel, on board the Cy- 
clops frigate; and, besides these, thirty- 
three men became ill from the same cause. 

The following casef is related by Sir 
George Baker, M.D. 

" Some cyder, which had been made in 
a gentleman's family, being thought too 
sour, was boiled with honey in a brewing 
vessel, the rim of which was capped with 
lead. All who drank this liquor were 

* Johnston's Essay on Poison, p. 102. 

t Medical Transactions, vol. i. p. 213. See also 
Serious Reflections on the Dangers attending the Use 
of Copper Vessels, p. 15. 


seized with a bowel colic, more or less 
violently. One of the servants died very 
soon in convulsions; several others were 
cruelly tortured a long time. The master 
of the family, in particular, notwithstanding 
all the assistance which art could give 
him, never recovered his health, but died 
miserably, after having almost three years 
languished under a most tedious and in- 
curable malady." 

Too much care and attention cannot be 
taken in preserving all culinary utensils of 
copper, in a state unexceptionably fit for 
their destined purpose. They should be 
frequently tinned, and kept thoroughly 
clean; nor should any food ever be suffered 
to remain in them for a longer time than is 
absolutely necessary to their preparation 
for the table. But the sure preventive of 


its pernicious effect, is, to banish copper 
utensils from the kitchen altogether. 

The following wholesome advice on this 
subject is given to cooks by the author of 
the excellent cookery book* we have be- 
fore quoted. 

" Stew-pans and soup-kettles should be 
examined every time they are used; these, 
and their covers, must be kept perfectly 
clean and well tinned, not only on the in- 
side, but about a couple of inches on the 
outside; so much mischief arises from their 
getting out of repair ; and, if not kept nicely 
tinned, all your work will be in vain ; the 
broths and soups will look green and dirty, 
and taste bitter and poisonous, and will be 
spoiled both for the eye and palate, and 

* The Cook's Oracle, p. 91. 


your credit will be lost; and as the health, 
and even the life, of the family depends 
upon this, the cook may be sure her em- 
ployer had rather pay the tin-man's bill 
than the doctor's." 

The senate of Sweden, in the year 1753, 
prohibited copper vessels, and ordered that 
none but such as were made of iron should 
be used in their fleet and armies. 


VARIOUS kinds of food used in domestic 
economy, are liable to become impregnated 
with lead. 

The glazing- of the common cream-co- 
loured earthen ware, which is composed of 
an oxid of lead, readily yields to the action 
of vinegar and saline compounds ; and there- 
fore the jars and pots of this kind of stone 
ware, are wholly unfit to contain jellies of 
fruits, marmalade, and similar conserves. 
Pickles should in no case be deposited in 
cream-coloured glazed earthenware. 

The custom which still prevails in some 


parts of this country of keeping milk in lea- 
den vessels for the use of the dairy, is very 

" In Lancashire* the dairies are furnished 
with milk-pans made of lead : and when Mr. 
Parks expostulated with some individuals on 
the danger of this practice, he was told that 
leaden milk-pans throw up the cream much 
better than vessels of any other kind, 

" In some parts of the north of England it 
is customary for the inn-keepers to prepare 
mint-salad by bruising and grinding the ve- 
getable in a large wooden bowl with a ball 
of lead of twelve or fourteen pounds weight. 
In this operation the mint is cut, and portions 
of the lead are ground off at every revo- 
lution of the ponderous instrument. In the 

* Parks's Chemical Essays, vol. v. p. 193. 



same county^ it is a common practice to have 
brewing-coppers constructed with the bot- 
tom of copper and the whole sides of lead." 

The baking of fruit tarts in cream-co- 
loured earthenware* and the salting and 
preserving of meat in leaden pans, are no 
less objectionable. All kinds of food which 
contain free vegetable acids, or saline pre- 
parations, attack utensils covered with a 
glaze, in the composition of which lead 
enters as a component part. The leaden 
beds of presses for squeezing the fruit in 
cyder countries, have produced incalcula- 
ble mischief. These consequences never 
follow, when the lead is combined with tin ; 
because this metal, being more eager for 
oxidation, prevents the solution of the lead. 

When we consider the various unsus- 
pected means by which the poisons of lead 


and copper gain admittance into the human 
body, a very common but dangerous in- 
stance presents itself: namely, the practice 
of painting toys, made for the amusement 
of children, with poisonous substances, viz. 
red lead, verdigrise, &c. Children are apt 
to put every thing, especially what gives 
them pleasure, into their mouths ; the paint- 
ing of toys with colouring substances that 
are poisonous, ought therefore to be abo- 
lished; a practice which lies the more open 
to censure, as it is of no real utility. 


Joseph Mallett, Printer, 59, Wardour-street, Soho, London.